Soal Latihan dan Jawaban Reading Comprehension 87
In the 1500′s when the Spanish moved into what later was to become the
southwestern United States, they encountered the ancestors of the modern-day Pueblo,
Hopi, and Zuni peoples. These ancestors, known variously as the Basket Makers, the
Anasazi, or the Ancient Ones, had lived in the area for at least 2,000 years. They were
(5) an advanced agricultural people who used irrigation to help grow their crops.
The Anasazi lived in houses constructed of adobe and wood. Anasazi houses were
originally built in pits and were entered from the roof. But around the year 700 A.D.,
the Anasazi began to build their homes above ground and join them together into
rambling multistoried complexes, which the Spanish called pueblos or villages.
(10) Separate subterranean rooms in these pueblos — known as kivas or chapels — were set
aside for religious ceremonials. Each kiva had a fire pit and a hole that was believed to
lead to the underworld. The largest pueblos had five stories and more than 800 rooms.
The Anasazi family was matrilinear, that is, descent was traced through the female.
The sacred objects of the family were under the control of the oldest female, but the
(15) ritual ceremonies were conducted by her brother or son. Women owned the rooms in
the pueblo and the crops, once they were harvested. While still growing, crops
belonged to the man who, in contrast to most other Native American groups, planted
them. The women made baskets and pottery, the men wove textile and crafted
(20) Each village had two chiefs. The village chief dealt with land disputes and religious
affairs. The war chief led the men in fighting during occasional conflicts that broke out
with neighboring villages and directed the men in community building projects. The
cohesive political and social organization of the Anasazi made it almost impossible for
other groups to conquer them.
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|planted their fields.|
|fertilized their fields.|
|stored their crops|
|watered their crops.|
|A twenty-year-old man|
|A forty-year-old man|
|A forty-year-old woman|
|A twenty-year-old woman|
|The military tactics employed by the Anasazi|
|The Anasazi's agricultural technology.|
|The political and social organization of the Anasazi|
|The natural barriers surrounding Anasazi willages.|
|The presence of the Spanish threatened Anasazi society.|
|Conflicts between neighboring Anasazi villages were easily resolved.|
|The Anasazi benefited from trading relations with the Spanish.|
|Anasazi society exhibited a well-defined division of labor.|