Soal Latihan dan Jawaban Reading Comprehension 86
The changing profile of a city in the United States is apparent in the shifting
definitions used by the United States Bureau of the Census. In 1870 the census
officially distinguished the nation’s “urban” from its “rural” population for the first
time. “Urban population” was defined as persons living in towns of 8,000 inhabitants
(5) or more. But after 1900 it meant persons living in incorporated places having 2,500 or
Then, in 1950 the Census Bureau radically changed its definition of “urban” to take
account of the new vagueness of city boundaries. In addition to persons living in
incorporated units of 2,500 or more, the census now included those who lived in
(10) unincorporated units of that size, and also all persons living in the densely settled urban
fringe, including both incorporated and unincorporated areas located around cities of
50,000 inhabitants or more. Each such unit, conceived as an integrated economic and
social unit with a large population nucleus, was named a Standard Metropolitan
Statistical Area (SMSA).
(15) Each SMSA would contain at least (a) one central city with 50,000 inhabitants or
more or (b) two cities having shared boundaries and constituting, for general economic
and social purposes, a single community with a combined population of at least 50,000,
the smaller of which must have a population of at least 15,000. Such an area included
the county in which the central city is located, and adjacent counties that are found to
(20) be metropolitan in character and economically and socially integrated with the country
of the central city. By 1970, about two-thirds of the population of the United States was
living in these urbanized areas, and of that figure more than half were living outside the
While the Census Bureau and the United States government used the term SMSA
(25) (by 1969 there were 233 of them), social scientists were also using new terms to
describe the elusive, vaguely defined areas reaching out from what used to be simple
“town” and “cities”. A host of terms came into use: “metropolitan regions”,
“polynucleated population groups”, “conurbations”, “metropolitan clusters”,
“megalopolises”, and so on.
Reading Comprehension 86
How the United States Census Bureau conducts a census
Solutions to overcrowding in cities
The changing definition of an urban area
How cities in the United States began and developed
Cities had undergone radical social change
City borders had become less distinct.
Elected officials could not agree on an acceptable definition.
New businesses had relocated to larger cities.
It has a population of at least 50,000
It consists of at least two cities.
It can include a city's outlying regions
It can include unincorporated regions