Soal Latihan dan Jawaban Reading Comprehension 84
Before the mid-nineteenth century, people in the United States ate most foods only
in season. Drying, smoking, and salting could preserve meat for a short time, but the
availability of fresh meat, like that of fresh milk, was very limited; there was no way to
prevent spoilage. But in 1810 a French inventor named Nicolas Appert developed the
(5) cooking-and-sealing process of canning. And in the 1850’s an American named Gail
Borden developed a means of condensing and preserving milk. Canned goods and
condensed milk became more common during the 1860’s, but supplies remained low
because cans had to be made by hand. By 1880, however, inventors had fashioned
stamping and soldering machines that mass-produced cans from tinplate. Suddenly all
(10) kinds of food could be preserved and bought at all times of the year.
Other trends and inventions had also helped make it possible for Americans to vary
their daily diets. Growing urban populations created demand that encouraged fruit and
vegetable farmers to raise more produce. Railroad refrigerator cars enabled growers
and meat packers to ship perishables great distances and to preserve them for longer
(15) periods. Thus, by the 1890’s, northern city dwellers could enjoy southern and western
strawberries, grapes, and tomatoes, previously available for a month at most, for up to
six months of the year. In addition, increased use of iceboxes enabled families to store
perishables. An easy means of producing ice commercially had been invented in the
1870’s, and by 1900 the nation had more than two thousand commercial ice plants,
(20) most of which made home deliveries. The icebox became a fixture in most homes and
remained so until the mechanized refrigerator replaced it in the 1920’s and 1930’s.
Almost everyone now had a more diversified diet. Some people continued to eat
mainly foods that were heavy in starches or carbohydrates, and not everyone could
afford meat. Nevertheless, many families could take advantage of previously
(25) unavailable fruits, vegetables, and dairy products to achieve more varied fare.
Reading Comprehension 84
Causes of food spoilage.
Commercial production of ice
Population movements in the nineteenth century.
Inventions that led to changes in the American diet.
a particular time of year
a method of flavoring food.
an official schedule
a kind of weather
unavailable in rural areas
available in limited quantities.
shipped in refrigerator cars
A staple part of the American diet.
increased in cost
were on an irregular schedule
decreased in number
occurred only in the summer.
Tin cans and iceboxes helped to make many foods more widely available.
Most farmers in the United States raised only fruits and vegetables.
Commercial ice factories were developed by railroad owners
People who lived in cities demanded home delivery of foods.