Soal Latihan dan Jawaban Reading Comprehension 80

Monday, March 26th, 2012 - reading comprehension

Large animals that inhabit the desert have evolved a number of adaptations for

reducing the effects of extreme heat. One adaptation is to be light in color, and to

reflect rather than absorb the Sun’s rays. Desert mammals also depart from the normal

mammalian practice of maintaining a constant body temperature. Instead of trying to

(5)      keep down the body temperature deep inside the body, which would involve the

expenditure of water and energy, desert mammals allow their temperatures to rise to

what would normally be fever height, and temperatures as high as 46 degrees Celsius

have been measured in Grant’s gazelles. The overheated body then cools down during

the cold desert night, and indeed the temperature may fall unusually low by dawn, as

(10)    low as 34 degrees Celsius in the camel. This is an advantage since the heat of the first

few hours of daylight is absorbed in warming up the body, and an excessive buildup of

heat does not begin until well into the day.

 

Another strategy of large desert animals is to tolerate the loss of body water to a

point that would be fatal for non-adapted animals. The camel can lose up to 30 percent

(15)    of its body weight as water without harm to itself, whereas human beings die after

losing only 12 to 13 percent of their body weight. An equally important adaptation is

the ability to replenish this water loss at one drink. Desert animals can drink prodigious

volumes in a short time, and camels have been known to imbibe over 100 liters in a

few minutes. A very dehydrated person, on the other hand, cannot drink enough water

(20)    to rehydrate at one session, because the human stomach is not sufficiently big and

because a too rapid dilution of the body fluids causes death from water intoxication.

The tolerance of water loss is of obvious advantage in the desert, as animals do not

have to remain near a water hole but can obtain food from grazing sparse and far-flung

pastures. Desert-adapted mammals have the further ability to feed normally when

(25)    extremely dehydrated, it is a common experience in people that appetite is lost even under

conditions of moderate thirst.

Reading Comprehension 80

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Question 1
What is the main topic of the passage?
A
Adaptations of desert animals
B
Diseased of desert animals
C
Weather variations in the desert
D
Human use of desert animals.
Question 2
According to the passage, why is light coloring an advantage to large desert animals?
A
It helps them hide from predators.
B
It keeps them cool at night.
C
It helps them see their young at night
D
It does not absorb sunlight as much as dark colors.
Question 3
The word "maintaining" in line 4 is closest in meaning to
A
delaying
B
measuring
C
preserving
D
inheriting
Question 4
The author uses of Grant's gazelle as an example of
A
an animal with a low average temperature
B
a desert animal that can withstand high body temperatures
C
an animal that is not as well adapted as the camel
D
a desert animal with a constant body temperature
Question 5
When is the internal temperature of a large desert mammal lower?
A
Just after sunset
B
In the middle of the day
C
Just after drinking
D
Just before sunrise
Question 6
The word "tolerate" in line 13 is closest in meaning to
A
endure
B
reduce
C
compensate
D
replace
Question 7
What causes water intoxication?
A
Drinking polluted water
B
Lack of water.
C
Bacteria in water
D
Drinking too much water very quickly
Question 8
What does the author imply about desert-adapted mammals?
A
They can eat large quantities quickly
B
They do not need to eat much food.
C
They can travel long distances looking for food.
D
They easily lose their appetites.
Question 9
Why does the author mention humans in the second paragraph?
A
To give instructions about desert survival.
B
To show how they have adapted to desert life.
C
To contrast them to desert mammals.
D
To show how they use camels.
Question 10
The word "obtain" in line 23 is closest in meaning to
A
save
B
get
C
carry
D
digest
Question 11
Which of the following is NOT mentioned as an adaptation of large desert animals?
A
Variation in body temperatures
B
Eating while dehydrated
C
Drinking water quickly
D
Being active at night.
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