Soal Latihan dan Jawaban Reading Comprehension 79
The sculptural legacy that the new United States inherited from its colonial
predecessors was far from a rich one, and in fact, in 1776 sculpture as an art form was
still in the hands of artisans and craftspeople. Stone carvers engraved their motifs of
skulls and crossbones and other religious icons of death into the gray slabs that we still
(5) see standing today in old burial grounds. Some skilled craftspeople made intricately
carved wooden ornamentations for furniture or architectural decorations, while others
caved wooden shop signs and ships’ figureheads. Although they often achieved
expression and formal excellence in their generally primitive style, they remained
artisans skilled in the craft of carving and constituted a group distinct from what we
(10) normally think of as “sculptors” in today’s use of the word.
On the rare occasion when a fine piece of sculpture was desired, Americans turned
to foreign sculptors, as in the 1770’s when the cities of New York and Charleston,
South Carolina, commissioned the Englishman Joseph Wilton to make marble statues
of William Pitt. Wilton also made a lead equestrian image of King George III that was
(15) created in New York in 1770 and torn down by zealous patriots six years later. A few
marble memorials with carved busts, urns, or other decorations were produced in
England and brought to the colonies to be set in the walls of churches-as in King’s
Chapel in Boston. But sculpture as a high art, practiced by artists who knew both the
artistic theory of their Renaissance-Baroque-Rococo predecessors and the various
(20) technical procedures of modeling, casting, and carving rich three-dimensional forms,
was not known among Americans in 1776. Indeed, for many years thereafter, the
United States had two groups from which to choose – either the local craftspeople or
the imported talent of European sculptors.
The eighteenth century was not one in which powered sculptural conceptions were
(25) developed. Add to this the timidity with which unschooled artisans – originally trained as
stonemasons, carpenters, or cabinetmakers – attacked the medium from which they
sculpture made in the United States in the late eighteenth century.
Reading Comprehension 79
There was great demand for the work of eighteenth-century artisans.
American sculptors were hampered by a lack of tools and materials.
Skilled sculptors did not exist in the United States in the 1770's.
Many foreign sculptors worked in the United States after 1776.
He was well known for his wood carvings
He settled in the United States in 1776.
He produced sculpture for churches.
He was an English sculptor who did work in the United States.
Such sculpture was as prestigious as those made locally.
Such sculpture was not available in the United States.
Such sculpture was less expensive to produce locally than to import
The materials found abroad were superior.
It was less refined.
It was more expensive.
It was more dangerous.
It was less time-consuming.