Soal Latihan dan Jawaban Reading Comprehension 77

Monday, March 26th, 2012 - reading comprehension

Both the number and the percentage of people in the United States involved in

nonagricultural pursuits expanded rapidly during the half century following the Civil War,

with some of the most dramatic increases occurring in the domains of transportation,

manufacturing, and trade and distribution. The development of the railroad and telegraph

(5)      systems during the middle third of the nineteenth century led to significant improvements

in the speed, volume, and regularity of shipments and communications, making possible

a fundamental transformation in the production and distribution of goods.

 

In agriculture, the transformation was marked by the emergence of the grain elevators,

the cotton presses, the warehouses, and the commodity exchanges that seemed to so many

(10)    of the nation’s farmers the visible sign of a vast conspiracy against them. In

manufacturing, the transformation was marked by the emergence of a “new factory

system” in which plants became larger, more complex, and more systematically organized

and managed. And in distribution, the transformation was marked by the emergence of

the jobber, the wholesaler, and the mass retailer. These changes radically altered the

(15)    nature of work during the half century between 1870 and 1920.

 

To be sure, there were still small workshops, where skilled craftspeople manufactured

products ranging from newspapers to cabinets to plumbing fixtures. There were the

sweatshops in city tenements, where groups of men and women in household settings

manufactured clothing or cigars on a piecework basis. And there were factories in

(20)    occupations such as metalwork where individual contractors presided over what were

essentially handicraft proprietorships that coexisted within a single building. But as the

number of wage earners in manufacturing rose from 2.7 million in 1880 to 4.5 million

in 1900 to 8.4 million in 1920, the number of huge plants like the Baldwin Locomotive

Works in Philadelphia burgeoned, as did the size of the average plant. (The Baldwin

(25)    Works had 600 employees in 1855, 3,000 in 1875, and 8,000 in 1900.) By 1920, at

least in the northeastern United States where most of the nation’s manufacturing wage

earners were concentrated, three-quarters of those worked in factories with more than

100 employees and 30 percent worked in factories with more than 1,000 employees.

 

Reading Comprehension 77

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Your answers are highlighted below.
Question 1
The word "domains" in line 3 is closest in meaning to
A
occupations
B
fields
C
locations
D
organizations
Question 2
What can be inferred from the passage about the agricultural sector of the economy after the Civil War?
A
The percentage of the total population working in agriculture declined.
B
New technological developments had little effect on farmers.
C
Farmers achieved new prosperity because of better rural transportation.
D
Many farms destroyed in the war were rebuilt after the war.
Question 3
The word "fundamental" in line 7 is closest in meaning to
A
gradual
B
unique
C
possible
D
basic
Question 4
Which of the following was NOT mentioned as part of the "new factory system?"
A
A growth in the complexity of factories.
B
An increase in the size of factories.
C
An increase in the cost of manufacturing industrial products.
D
A change in the organization of factories.
Question 5
Which of the following statements about manufacturing before 1870 can be inferred from the passage?
A
Most manufacturing occurred in relatively small plants.
B
Most manufacturing activity was highly organized.
C
Manufacturing and agriculture each made up about half of the nation's economy.
D
The most commonly manufactured goods were cotton presses.
Question 6
The word "skilled" in line 16 is closest in meaning to
A
expert
B
industrial
C
well-paid
D
hardworking
Question 7
The word "presided over" in line 20 are closest in meaning to
A
produced
B
worked in
C
led to
D
managed
Question 8
The author mentions the Baldwin Locomotive Works in lines 23-24 because it was
A
typical of factories that consisted of a single building
B
the first plant of its kind in Philadelphia
C
typical of the large factories that were becoming more common
D
a well-known metal-works
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