Soal Latihan dan Jawaban Reading Comprehension 74

Monday, March 26th, 2012 - reading comprehension

Throughout the nineteenth century and into the twentieth, citizens of the United

States maintained a bias against big cities. Most lived on farms and in small towns and

believed cities to be centers of corruption, crime, poverty, and moral degradation. Their

distrust was caused, in part, by a national ideology that proclaimed farming the greatest

(5)      occupation and rural living superior to urban living. This attitude prevailed even as the

number of urban dwellers increased and cities became an essential feature of the

national landscape. Gradually, economic reality overcame ideology. Thousands

abandoned the precarious life on the farm for more secure and better paying jobs in the

city. But when these people migrated from the countryside, they carried their fears and

(10)    suspicious with them. These new urbanities, already convinced that cities were

overwhelmed with great problems, eagerly embraced the progressive reforms that

promised to bring order out of the chaos of the city.

 

One of many reforms came in the area of public utilities. Water and sewerage

systems were usually operated by municipal governments, but the gas and electric

(15)    networks were privately owned. Reformers fared that the privately owned utility

companies would charge exorbitant rates for these essential services and deliver them

only to people who could afford them. Some city and state governments responded by

regulating the utility companies, but a number of cities began to supply these services

themselves. Proponents of these reforms argued that public ownership and regulation

(20)    would insure widespread access to these utilities and guarantee a fair price.

 

While some reforms focused on government and public behavior, others looked at

the cities as a whole. Civic leaders, convinced that physical environment influenced

human behavior, argued that cities should develop master plans to guide their future

growth and development. City planning was nothing new, but the rapid industrialization

(25)    and urban growth of the late nineteenth century took place without any consideration

for order. Urban renewal in the twentieth century followed several courses. Some cities

introduced plans to completely rebuild the city core. Most other cities contented

themselves with zoning plans for regulating future growth. Certain parts of town were

restricted to residential use, while others were set aside for industrial or commercial

(30)    development.

 

Reading Comprehension 74

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Question 1
What does the passage mainly discuss?
A
Efforts to improve urban life in the early twentieth century
B
The role of government in twentieth-century urban renewal
C
Methods of controlling urban growth in the twentieth century
D
A comparison of urban and rural life in the early twentieth century
Question 2
The word "bias" in line 2 is closest in meaning to
A
prejudice
B
distortion
C
diagonal
D
slope
Question 3
The first paragraph suggests that most people who lived in rural areas
A
were suspicious of their neighbors
B
believed city government had too much power
C
were very proud of their lifestyle
D
wanted to move to the cities
Question 4
In the early twentieth century, many rural dwellers migrated to the city in order to
A
avoid crime and corruption
B
participate in the urban reform movement
C
seek financial security
D
comply with a government ordinance
Question 5
The word "embraced" in line 11 is closest in meaning to
A
demanded
B
suggested
C
overestimated
D
welcomed
Question 6
What concern did reformers have about privately owned utility companies?
A
They wanted to ensure that the services would be provided to rural areas.
B
They did not trust the companies to obey the government regulations.
C
They feared the services would not be made available to all city dwellers.
D
They believed private ownership would slow economic growth
Question 7
What concern did reformers have about privately owned utility companies?
A
They believed private ownership would slow economic growth
B
They feared the services would not be made available to all city dwellers.
C
They did not trust the companies to obey the government regulations.
D
They wanted to ensure that the services would be provided to rural areas.
Question 8
The word "exorbitant" in line 16 is closest in meaning to
A
additional
B
expensive
C
various
D
modified
Question 9
All of the following were the direct result of public utility reforms EXCEPT
A
local governments determined the rates charged by private utility companies
B
some utility companies were owned and operated by local governments
C
the availability of services was regulated by local government
D
private utility companies were required to pay a fee to local governments
Question 10
The word "Proponents" in line 19 is closest in meaning to
A
Pioneers
B
Reviewers
C
Experts
D
Supporters
Question 11
Why does the author mention "industrialization" (line 24)?
A
To illustrate the need for construction of new factories
B
To emphasize the economic importance of urban areas
C
To explain how fast urban growth led to poorly designed cities
D
To suggest that labor disputes had become an urban problem
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