Soal Latihan dan Jawaban Reading Comprehension 69

Monday, March 26th, 2012 - reading comprehension

Anyone who has handled a fossilized bone knows that it is usually not exactly like

its modern counterpart, the most obvious difference being that it is often much heavier.

Fossils often have the quality of stone rather than of organic materials, and this has led

to the use of the term “petrifaction” (to bring about rock). The implication is that bone

(5)  and other tissues have somehow been turned into stone, and this is certainly the

explanation given in some texts. But it is a wrong interpretation; fossils are frequently

so dense because the pores and other spaces in the bone have become filled with

minerals taken up from the surrounding sediments. Some fossil bones have all the

interstitial spaces filled with foreign minerals, including the marrow cavity, if there is

(10) one, while others have taken up but little from their surrounding. Probably all of the

minerals deposited within the bone have been recrystallized from solution by the action

of water percolating through tem. The degree of mineralization appears to be determined

by the nature of the environment in which the bone was deposited and not by the

antiquity of the bone. For example, the black fossil bones that are so common in many

(15) parts of Florida are heavily mineralized, but they are only about 20,000 years old,

whereas many of the dinosaur bones from western Canada, which are about 75 million

years old, are only partially filled in. under optimum conditions the process of

mineralization probably takes thousands rather than millions of years perhaps

considerably less.

 

(20)  This amount of change that has occurred in fossil bone, even in bone as old as that of

dinosaurs, is often remarkably small. We are therefore usually able to see the

microscopic structure of the bone, including such fine details as the lacunae where the

living bone cells once resided. The natural bone mineral, the hydroxyapatite, is

virtually unaltered too-it has the same crystal structure as that of modern bone.

(25)  Although nothing remains of the original collagen, some of its component amino acids

are usually still detectable, together with amino acids of the noncollagen proteins of

bone.

Reading Comprehension 69

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Question 1
What does the passage mainly discuss?
A
The composition of fossils
B
The location of fossils in North America
C
Determining the size and weight of fossils
D
Procedures for analyzing fossils
Question 2
The word "counterpart" in line 2 is closest in meaning to
A
version
B
species
C
change
D
material
Question 3
Why is fossilized bone heavier than ordinary bone?
A
The marrow cavity gradually fills with water.
B
Spaces within the bone fill with minerals.
C
The organic materials turn to stone.
D
Bone tissue solidifies with age.
Question 4
The word "pores" in line 7 is closest in meaning to
A
lines
B
holes
C
tissues
D
joints
Question 5
What can be inferred about a fossil with a high degree of mineralization?
A
Many colorful crystals can be found in such a fossil.
B
Mineralization was complete within one years of the animal's death.
C
It was exposed to large amounts of mineral-laden water throughout time.
D
It was discovered in western Canada.
Question 6
Which of the following factors is most important in determining the extent of mineralization fossil bones?
A
The location of the bone in the animal's body
B
The type of animal the bone came from
C
Environmental conditions
D
The age of the fossil
Question 7
Why does the author compare fossils found in western Canada to those found in Florida?
A
To prove that a fossil's age cannot be determined by the amount of mineralization.
B
To explain why scientists are especially interested in Canadian fossils.
C
To discuss the large quantity of fossils found in both places.
D
To suggest that fossils found in both places were the same age
Question 8
The word "it" in line 24 refers to
A
microscopic structure
B
modern bone
C
crystal structure
D
hydroxyapatite
Question 9
The word "detectable" in line 26 is closest in meaning to
A
active
B
apparent
C
moist
D
sizable
Question 10
Which of the following does NOT survive in fossils?
A
Collagen
B
Noncollagen protein
C
Hydroxyapatite
D
Amino acid
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