Soal Latihan dan Jawaban Reading Comprehension 68
In addition to their military role, the forts of the nineteenth century provided numerous
other benefits for the American West. The establishment of these posts opened new
roads and provided for the protection of daring adventurers and expeditions as well as
established settlers. Forts also serve as bases where enterprising entrepreneurs could
(5) bring commerce to the West, providing supplies and refreshments to soldiers as well as
to pioneers. Posts like fort Laramie provided supplies for wagon trains traveling the
natural highways toward new frontiers. Some posts became stations for the pony
express; still others, such as Fort Davis, were stagecoach stops for weary travelers. All
of these functions, of course, suggest that the contributions of the forts to the
(10) civilization and development of the West extended beyond patrol duty.
Through the establishment of military posts, yet other contributions were made to
the development of western culture, Many posts maintained libraries or reading rooms,
and some-for example, Fort Davis-had schools. Post chapels provided a setting
for religious services and weddings. Throughout the wilderness, post bands provided
(15) entertainment and boosted morale. During the last part of the nineteenth century, to
reduce expenses, gardening was encouraged at the forts, thus making experimental
agriculture another activity of the military. The military stationed at the various forts
also played a role in civilian life by assisting in maintaining order and civilian officials
often called on the army for protection.
(20) Certainly among other significant contributions the army made to the improvement
of the conditions of life was the investigation of the relationships among health,
climate and architecture. From the earliest colonial times throughout the nineteenth
century, disease ranked as the foremost problem in defense. It slowed construction of
forts and inhibited their military function. Official documents form many regions
(25) contained innumerable reports of sickness that virtually incapacitated entire garrisons.
In response to the problems, detailed observations of architecture and climate and their
relationships to the frequency of the occurrence of various diseases were recorded at
various posts across the nation by military surgeons.
Reading Comprehension 68
Life in nineteenth-century forts was very rough.
Forts were important to the development of the American West.
By the nineteenth century, forts were no longer used by the military.
Surgeons at forts could not prevent outbreaks of disease.
It was expensive to import produce from far away
Food brought in front outside was often spoiled.
The soil near the forts was very fertile.
Gardening was a way to occupy otherwise idle soldiers.
Attacks by wild animals
Shortage of materials
By maintaining records of disease and potential causes
By monitoring the soldiers' diets
By experimenting with different building materials
By registering annual birth and death rates
describing their locations
listing their contributions to western life
explaining their damage to the environment
comparing their sizes.