Soal Latihan dan Jawaban Reading Comprehension 66

Monday, March 26th, 2012 - reading comprehension

Biological diversity has become widely recognized as a critical conservation issue only

in the past two decades. The rapid destruction of the tropical rain forests, which are the

ecosystems with the highest known species diversity on Earth, has awakened people to the

importance and fragility of biological diversity. The high rate of species extinctions in

(5)  these environments is jolting, but it is important to recognize the significance of biological

diversity in all ecosystems. As the human population continues to expand, it will

negatively affect one after another of Earth’s ecosystems. In terrestrial ecosystems and

in fringe marine ecosystems (such as wetlands), the most common problem is habitat

destruction. In most situations, the result is irreversible. Now humans are beginning to

(10)  destroy marine ecosystems through other types of activities, such as disposal and runoff

of poisonous waste; in less than two centuries, by significantly reducing the variety of

species on Earth, they have unraveled cons of evolution and irrevocably redirected its

course.

 

Certainly, there have been periods in Earth’s history when mass extinctions have

(15)  occurred. The extinction of the dinosaurs was caused by some physical event, either

climatic or cosmic. There have also been less dramatic extinctions, as when natural

competition between species reached an extreme conclusion. Only 0.01 percent of the

species that have lived on Earth have survived to the present, and it was largely chance

that determined which species survived and which died out.

 

(20)  However, nothing has ever equaled the magnitude and speed with which the human

species is altering the physical and chemical world and demolishing the environment. In

fact, there is wide agreement that it is the rate of change humans are inflicting, even

more than the changes themselves, that will lead to biological devastation. Life on Earth

has continually been in flux as slow physical and chemical changes have occurred on

(25)  Earth, but life needs time to adapt-time for migration and genetic adaptation within

existing species and time for the proliferation of new genetic material and new species

that may be able to survive in new environments.

 

Reading Comprehension 66

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Question 1
What does the passage mainly discuss?
A
The cause of the extinction of the dinosaurs
B
The time required for species to adapt to new environments
C
The impact of human activities on Earth's ecosystems
D
The variety of species found in tropical rain forests
Question 2
The word "critical" in line 1 is closest in meaning to
A
negative
B
complicated
C
essential
D
interesting
Question 3
The word "jolting" in line 5 is closest in meaning to
A
predicted
B
unknown
C
shocking
D
illuminating
Question 4
The author mentions the reduction of the variety of species on Earth in lines 11-12 to suggest that
A
new habitats can be created for species
B
some species have been made extinct by human activity
C
an understanding of evolution can prevent certain species from disappearing
D
humans are often made ill by polluted water
Question 5
The author mentions all of the following as examples of the effect of humans on the world's ecosystems EXCEPT
A
the introduction of new varieties of plant species
B
habitat destruction in wetlands
C
destruction of the tropical rain forests
D
damage to marine ecosystems
Question 6
The author mentions the extinction of the dinosaurs in the second paragraph to emphasize that
A
Earth's climate has changed significantly since the dinosaurs' extinction
B
the cause of the dinosaurs' extinction is unknown
C
not all mass extinctions have been caused by human activity
D
actions by humans could not stop the irreversible process of a species' extinction
Question 7
The word "magnitude" in line 20 is closest in meaning to
A
determination
B
extent
C
carelessness
D
concern
Question 8
According to the passage, natural evolutionary change is different from changes caused by humans in that changes caused by humans
A
affect fewer ecosystems
B
are reversible
C
are less devastating to most species
D
are occurring at a much faster rate
Question 9
With which of the following statements would the author be most likely to agree?
A
Technology will provide solutions to problems caused by the destruction of ecosystems.
B
The extinction of a few species is an acceptable consequence of human progress.
C
Humans should be more conscious of the influence they have on ecosystems.
D
Human influence on ecosystems should not be a factor in determining public policy.
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