Soal Latihan dan Jawaban Reading Comprehension 65

Monday, March 26th, 2012 - reading comprehension

A pioneering set of experiments has been important in the revolution in our

understanding of animal behavior-a revolution that eroded the behaviorist

dogma that only humans have minds. These experiments were designed to detect

consciousness-that is signs of self-awareness or self-recognition-in animals

(5)  other than humans.

 

The scientific investigation of an experience as private as consciousness is frustratingly

beyond the usual tools of the experimental psychologist. This may be one reason that

many researchers have shield away from the notion of mind and consciousness in

nonhuman animals. In the late 1960’s, however, psychologist Gordon Gallup devised a test

(10)  of the sense of self: the mirror test. If an animal were able to recognize its reflection in

a mirror as “self”, then it could be said to possess an awareness of self, or consciousness.

It is known that a cat or a dog reacts to its own image in a mirror, but often it treats it

as that of another individual whose behavior very soon becomes puzzling and boring.

 

The experiment called for familiarizing the animal with the mirror and then marking

(15)  the animal’s forehead with a red spot. If the animal saw the reflection as just another

individual, it might wonder about the curious red spot and might even touch the mirror.

But if the animal realized that the reflection was of itself, it would probably touch the

spot on its own body. The first time Gallup tried the experiment with a chimpanzee, the

animal acted as if it knew that the reflection was its own; it touched the red spot on its

(20)  forehead. Gallup’ report of the experiment, published in a 1970 articles, was a milestone

in our understanding of animal minds, and psychologists wondered how widespread

self-recognition would prove to be.

Reading Comprehension 65

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Question 1
The word "dogma" in line 3 is closest in meaning to
A
evaluation
B
belief
C
proof
D
intention
Question 2
The word "detect" in line 3 is closest in meaning to
A
imitate the behavior of
B
provide a reason for
C
report a need for
D
discover the presence of
Question 3
Which of the following statements best describes the behaviorists position with regard to consciousness in nonhuman animals?
A
Nonhuman animals do not possess self-consciousness.
B
Most nonhuman animals show signs of self-consciousness.
C
Chimpanzees are the only nonhuman animals that have a human level of self-consciousness.
D
Most nonhuman animals can be taught self-consciousness.
Question 4
The author suggests that researchers before 1960 probably avoided studying nonhuman animal consciousness because they
A
lacked the necessary laboratory equipment
B
did not wish to experiment with live animal subjects
C
had not yet devised adequate research methods for animal consciousness experiments
D
were discouraged by earlier unsuccessful experiments that studied human consciousness
Question 5
The phrase "shied away from" in lien 8 is closest in meaning to
A
approached
B
allowed
C
avoided
D
respected
Question 6
What does the author mean when stating in line 14 that "The experiment called for familiarizing the animal with the mirror"?
A
The experiment required the use of a chimpanzee that had not participated in previous mirror tests.
B
Gallup had to allow the chimpanzee to become accustomed to the mirror before he began the experiment.
C
Gallup had to teach the chimpanzee to recognize its reflection in the mirror.
D
The chimpanzee had to first watch the experiment being conducted with another chimpanzee.
Question 7
The word "it" in line 16 refers to
A
another individual
B
reflection
C
animal
D
red spot
Question 8
The chimpanzee in Gallup's first experiment responded to the mirror test by touching
A
the red spot on another chimpanzee
B
the researcher's forehead
C
its own forehead
D
the red spot on the mirror
Question 9
The word "milestone" in line 20 is closest in meaning to
A
universal concept
B
obstruction to progress
C
significant development
D
initial step
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