Soal Latihan dan Jawaban Reading Comprehension 65
A pioneering set of experiments has been important in the revolution in our
understanding of animal behavior-a revolution that eroded the behaviorist
dogma that only humans have minds. These experiments were designed to detect
consciousness-that is signs of self-awareness or self-recognition-in animals
(5) other than humans.
The scientific investigation of an experience as private as consciousness is frustratingly
beyond the usual tools of the experimental psychologist. This may be one reason that
many researchers have shield away from the notion of mind and consciousness in
nonhuman animals. In the late 1960’s, however, psychologist Gordon Gallup devised a test
(10) of the sense of self: the mirror test. If an animal were able to recognize its reflection in
a mirror as “self”, then it could be said to possess an awareness of self, or consciousness.
It is known that a cat or a dog reacts to its own image in a mirror, but often it treats it
as that of another individual whose behavior very soon becomes puzzling and boring.
The experiment called for familiarizing the animal with the mirror and then marking
(15) the animal’s forehead with a red spot. If the animal saw the reflection as just another
individual, it might wonder about the curious red spot and might even touch the mirror.
But if the animal realized that the reflection was of itself, it would probably touch the
spot on its own body. The first time Gallup tried the experiment with a chimpanzee, the
animal acted as if it knew that the reflection was its own; it touched the red spot on its
(20) forehead. Gallup’ report of the experiment, published in a 1970 articles, was a milestone
in our understanding of animal minds, and psychologists wondered how widespread
self-recognition would prove to be.
Reading Comprehension 65
imitate the behavior of
provide a reason for
report a need for
discover the presence of
Nonhuman animals do not possess self-consciousness.
Most nonhuman animals show signs of self-consciousness.
Chimpanzees are the only nonhuman animals that have a human level of self-consciousness.
Most nonhuman animals can be taught self-consciousness.
lacked the necessary laboratory equipment
did not wish to experiment with live animal subjects
had not yet devised adequate research methods for animal consciousness experiments
were discouraged by earlier unsuccessful experiments that studied human consciousness
The experiment required the use of a chimpanzee that had not participated in previous mirror tests.
Gallup had to allow the chimpanzee to become accustomed to the mirror before he began the experiment.
Gallup had to teach the chimpanzee to recognize its reflection in the mirror.
The chimpanzee had to first watch the experiment being conducted with another chimpanzee.
the red spot on another chimpanzee
the researcher's forehead
its own forehead
the red spot on the mirror
obstruction to progress