Soal Latihan dan Jawaban Reading Comprehension 62

Monday, March 26th, 2012 - reading comprehension

A seventeenth-century theory of burning proposed that anything that burns must

contain material that the theorists called “phlogiston”. Burning was explained as the

release of phlogiston from the combustible material to the air. Air was thought

essential, since it had to provide a home for the released phlogiston. There would be a

(5)  limit to the phlogiston transfer, since a given volume of air could absorb only so much

phlogiston. When the air had become saturated, no additional amounts of phlogiston

could leave the combustible substance, and the burning would stop. Burning would

also stop when the combustible substance was emptied of all its phlogiston.

 

Although the phlogiston theory was self-consistent, it was awkward because it

(10)  required that imaginative, even mysterious, properties be ascribed to phlogiston.

Phlogiston was elusive. No one had ever isolated it and experimentally determined its

properties. At times it seemed to show a negative weight: the residue left after burning

weighed more than the material before burning. This was true, for example, when

magnesium burned. Sometimes phlogiston seemed to show a positive weight: when,

(15)  for example, wood burned, the ash weighed less than the starting material. And since

so little residue was left when alcohol, kerosene, or high-grade coal burned, these

obviously different materials were thought to be pure or nearly pure phlogiston.

 

In the eighteenth century, Antoine Lavoisier, on the basis of careful experimentation,

was led to propose a different theory of burning, one that required a constituent of

(20)  air-later shown to be oxygen-for combustion. Since the weight of the oxygen is

always added, the weight of the products of combustion, including the evolved gases,

would always be greater than the weight of the starting material.

 

Lavoisier’s interpretation was more reasonable and straightforward than that of the

phlogiston theorists. The phlogiston theory, always clumsy, became suspect, eventually

(25)  fell into scientific disrepute, and was replaced by new ideas.

 

Reading Comprehension 62

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Your answers are highlighted below.
Question 1
What does the passage mainly discuss?
A
The characteristics of the residue left after fires
B
Limitations of seventeenth-century scientific theories
C
Attempts to explain what happens when materials burn
D
The chemical composition of phlogiston.
Question 2
The word "it" in line 4 refers to
A
phlogiston
B
air
C
burning
D
combustible material
Question 3
The "phlogiston transfer" mentioned in line 5 is a term used to describe the
A
absence of phlogiston in combustible material
B
natural limits on the total volume of phlogiston
C
release of phlogiston into the air from burning material
D
ability of phlogiston to slow combustion
Question 4
The word "properties" in line 10 is closest in meaning to
A
virtues
B
characteristics
C
interpretations
D
locations
Question 5
The phrase "ascribed to" in line 10 is closest in meaning to
A
analyzed and isolated in
B
assumed to be true of
C
returned to their original condition in
D
diagrammed with
Question 6
The author mentions magnesium in line 14 as an example of a substance that
A
was thought to contain no phlogiston
B
was thought to be made of nearly pure phlogiston
C
seemed to have phlogiston with a negative weight
D
leaves no residue after burning
Question 7
The "different materials" mentioned in line 17 were considered different because they
A
burned without leaving much residue
B
were more mysterious than phlogiston
C
required more heat to burn than other substances did
D
contained limited amounts of phlogiston
Question 8
The word "constituent" in line 19 is closest in meaning to
A
opposite
B
principle
C
temperature
D
component
Question 9
The word "Since" in line 20 is closest in meaning to
A
later
B
although
C
during
D
because
Question 10
Which of the following is true of both the phlogiston theory of burning and Lavoisier's theory of burning?
A
Both theories have difficulty explaining why residue remains after burning.
B
Both theories recognize that air is important to combustion.
C
Both theories propose that total weight always increases during burning.
D
Both theories are considered to be reasonable and straightforward.
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