Soal Latihan dan Jawaban Reading Comprehension 58

Monday, March 26th, 2012 - reading comprehension

The elements other than hydrogen and helium exist in such small quantities that it is

accurate to say that the universe somewhat more than 25 percent helium by weight

and somewhat less than 25 percent hydrogen.

 

Astronomers have measured the abundance of helium throughout our galaxy and in

(5)  other galaxies as well. Helium has been found in old stars, in relatively young ones, in

interstellar gas, and in the distant objects known as quasars. Helium nuclei have also

been found to be constituents of cosmic rays that fall on the earth (cosmic “rays” are

not really a form of radiation; they consist of rapidly moving particles of numerous

different kinds). It doesn’t seem to make very much difference where the helium is

(10)  found. Its relative abundance never seems to vary much. In some places, there may be

slightly more of it; In others, slightly less, but the ratio of helium to hydrogen nuclei

always remains about the same.

 

Helium is created in stars. In fact, nuclear reactions that convert hydrogen to helium

are responsible for most of the energy that stars produce. However, the amount of

(15)  helium that could have been produced in this manner can be calculated, and it turns out

to be no more than a few percent. The universe has not existed long enough for this

figure to he significantly greater. Consequently, if the universe is somewhat more than

25 percent helium now, then it must have been about 25 percent helium at a time near

the beginning.

 

(20)  However, when the universe was less than one minute old, no helium could have

existed. Calculations indicate that before this time temperatures were too high and

particles of matter were moving around much too rapidly. It was only after the oneminute

point that helium could exist. By this time, the universe had cooled sufficiently

that neutrons and protons could stick together. But the nuclear reactions that led to the

(25)  formation of helium went on for only a relatively short time. By the time the universe

was a few minutes old, helium production had effectively ceased.

 

Reading Comprehension 58

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Question 1
What does the passage mainly explain?
A
The difference between helium and hydrogen
B
How stars produce energy
C
When most of the helium in the universe was formed
D
Why hydrogen is abundant
Question 2
According to the passage, helium is
A
difficult to detect
B
the oldest element in the universe
C
the second-most abundant element in the universe
D
the most prevalent element in quasars
Question 3
The word "constituents" in line 7 is closest in meaning to
A
causes
B
targets
C
relatives
D
components
Question 4
Why does the author mention "cosmic rays'' in line 7?
A
To explain how the universe began
B
As an example of an unsolved astronomical puzzle
C
As part of a list of things containing helium
D
To explain the abundance of hydrogen in the universe
Question 5
The word "vary" in line 10 is closest ill meaning to
A
include
B
mean
C
change
D
stretch
Question 6
The creation of helium within stars
A
produces energy
B
cannot be measured
C
produces hydrogen as a by-product
D
causes helium to be much more abundant In old stars than In young star.
Question 7
The word "calculated" in line 15 is closest in meaning to
A
ignored
B
converted
C
increased
D
determined
Question 8
Most of the helium in the universe was formed
A
in interstellar space
B
in a very short time
C
during the first minute of the universe's existence
D
before most of the hydrogen
Question 9
The word "ceased" in line 26 is closest in meaning to
A
performed
B
taken hold
C
extended
D
stopped
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