Soal Latihan dan Jawaban Reading Comprehension 56
The development of jazz can be seen as part of the larger continuum of American
popular music, especially dance music. In the twenties, jazz became the hottest new
thing in dance music, much as ragtime had at the turn of the century, and as would
rhythm and blues in the fifties, rock in the fifties, and disco in the seventies.
(5) But two characteristics distinguish jazz from other dance music. The first is
improvisation, the changing of a musical phrase according to the player’s inspiration.
Like all artists, jazz musicians strive for an individual style, and the improvise or
paraphrase is a jazz musician’s main opportunity to display his or her individuality.
In early jazz, musicians often improvised melodies collectively, thus creating a kind of
(10) polyphony. There was little soloing as such, although some New Orleans players,
particularly cornet player Buddy Bolden, achieved local fame for their ability to improvise
a solo. Later the idea of the chorus-long or multichorus solo took hold. Louis Armstrong’s
instrumental brilliance, demonstrated through extended solos, was a major influence in
(15) Even in the early twenties, however, some jazz bands had featured soloists.
Similarly, show orchestras and carnival bands often included one or two such “get-off”
musicians. Unimproved, completely structured jazz does exist, but the ability of the
best jazz musicians to create music of great cohesion and beauty during performance
has been a hallmark of the music and its major source of inspiration and change.
(20) The second distinguishing characteristic of jazz is a rhythmic drive that was initially
called “hot” and later “swing”. In playing hot, a musician consciously departs from
strict meter to create a relaxed sense of phrasing that also emphasizes the underlying
rhythms. (“Rough” tone and use of moderate vibrato also contributed to a hot sound.)
Not all jazz is hot, however, many early bands played unadorned published arrangements
(25) of popular songs. Still, the proclivity to play hot distinguished the jazz musician from
Reading Comprehension 56
Why Is dancing closely related to popular music in the United States?
What Instruments comprised a typical jazz band of the 1920's?
What are the differences between jazz and other forms of music?
Which early jazz musicians most Influenced rhythm and blues music?
Rhythm and blues
reading music with great skill
creating musical variations while performing
being able to play all types of popular music
preparing musical arrangements
Provide solo performances in a band or orchestra
Assist the other band members in packing up after a performance
Lead the band
Teach dance routines created for new music
"multichorus” (line 12)
"improvisation" (line 6)
"polyphony" (line 10)
"cornet player” (line 11)
dividing the discussion into two major areas
presenting contrasting points of view
providing biographies of famous musician
describing historical events in sequence