Soal Latihan dan Jawaban Reading Comprehension 55

Saturday, March 24th, 2012 - reading comprehension

The livelihood of each species in the vast and intricate assemblage of living things

depends on the existences of other organisms. This interdependence is sometimes

subtle, sometimes obvious. Perhaps the most straight forward dependence of one

species on another occurs with parasites, organisms that live on or in other living things

(5)  and derive nutrients directly from them. The parasitic way of life is widespread. A

multitude of microorganisms( including viruses and bacteria) and an army of

invertebrates – or creatures lacking a spinal column (including crustaceans, insects,

and many different types of worms ) -make their livings directly at the expense of

other creatures. In the face of this onslaught, living things have evolved a variety of

(10)  defense mechanisms for protecting their bodies from invasion by other organisms.

 

Certain fungi and even some kinds of bacteria secrete substances known as

antibiotics into their external environment. These substances are capable of killing or

inhibiting the growth of various kinds of bacteria that also occupy the area, thereby

eliminating or reducing the competition for nutrients. The same principle is used in

(15)  defense against invaders in other groups of organisms. For example, when attacked by

disease-causing fungi or bacteria, many kinds of plants produce chemicals that help to

ward off the invaders.

 

Members of the animal kingdom have developed a variety of defense mechanisms

for dealing with parasites. Although these mechanisms vary considerably, all major

(20)  groups of animals are capable of detecting and reacting to the presence of “foreign”

cells. In fact, throughout the animal kingdom, from sponges to certain types of worms,

shellfish, and all vertebrates (creatures possessing a spinal column), there is evidence

that transplants of cells or fragments of tissues into an animal are accepted only if they

come from genetically compatible or closely related individuals.

 

(25)  The ability to distinguish between “self” and “nonself”, while present in all animals,

is most efficient among vertebrates, which have developed an immune system as their

defense mechanism. The immune system recognizes and takes action against foreign

invaders and transplanted tissues that are treated as foreign cells.

 

Reading Comprehension 55

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Your answers are highlighted below.
Question 1
What does the passage mainly discuss?
A
how antibiotics work to cure disease
B
how organisms react to invaders
C
how parasites reproduce
D
how the immune systems of vertebrates developed
Question 2
The word "intricate" in line 1 is closest in meaning to
A
complex
B
widespread
C
difficult
D
critical
Question 3
The expression "an army" in line 6 is closest in meaning to
A
a large number
B
an attack
C
a distinct type
D
an illness
Question 4
According to the passage, some organisms produce antibiotics in order to
A
prevent disease in humans
B
fight off other organisms
C
create new types of nutrients
D
aid digestion
Question 5
The word "vary" in line 19 is closest in meaning to
A
endure
B
balance
C
differ
D
contribute
Question 6
The word "they" in line 23 refers to
A
transplants
B
vertebrates
C
individuals
D
sponges, worms and shellfish
Question 7
According to the passage, a transplant of tissue between genetically incompatible organisms will result in the transplanted tissue
A
being treated as an invader
B
becoming a parasite
C
altering its genetic makeup
D
developing a new immune system
Question 8
According to the passage, the ability to distinguish between "self" and "nonself" enables vertebrates to
A
accept transplanted cells
B
weaken their immune system
C
get rid of antibiotics
D
detect and react to invasion
Question 9
All of the following ate defined in the passage EXCEPT
A
invertebrates(line7)
B
vertebrates(line 22)
C
nutrients (line14)
D
parasites(line 4)
Question 10
The paragraph following the passage most probably discusses
A
different types of bacteria and lung
B
examples of different groups of organisms
C
how the immune system in vertebrates fights off foreign cells
D
how vertebrates and invertebrates differ
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