Soal Latihan dan Jawaban Reading Comprehension 52
Although social changes in the United States were being wrought throughout most
of the nineteenth-century, public awareness of the changes increased to new levels in
the 1890′s. The acute, growing public awareness of the social changes that had been
taking place for some time was tied to tremendous growth in popular journalism in the
(5) late nineteenth century, including growth in quantity and circulation of both magazines
and newspapers. These developments, in addition to the continued growth of cities,
were significant factors in the transformation of society from one characterized by
relatively isolated self-contained communities into an urban, industrial nation. The
decade of the 1870′s, for example, was a period in which the sheer number of
(10) newspapers doubled, and by 1880 the New York Graphic had published the first
photographic reproduction in a newspaper, portending a dramatic rise in newspaper
readership. Between 1882 and 1886 alone, the price of daily newspapers dropped from
four cents a copy to one cent, made possible in part by a great increase in demand.
Furthermore, the introduction in 1890 of the first successful linotype machine promised
(15) even further growth. In 1872 only two daily newspapers could claim a circulation of
over 100,000,but by 1892 seven more newspapers exceeded that figure. A world
beyond the immediate community was rapidly becoming visible.
But it was not newspapers alone that were bringing the new awareness to people in
the United States in the late nineteenth century. Magazines as they are known today
(20) began publication around 1882, and, in fact, the circulation of weekly magazines
exceeded that of newspapers in the period which followed. By 1892, for example, the
circulation of the Ladies’ Home Journal had reached an astounding 700,000. An increase
in book readership also played a significant part in this general trend. For example,
Edward Bellamy’s utopian novel, Looking Backward, sold over a million copies in
(25) 1888, giving rise to the growth of organizations dedicated to the realization of Bellamy’s
vision of the future. The printed word, unquestionably, was intruding on the insulation
that had characterized United Slates society in an earlier period.
Reading Comprehension 52
a larger supply of paper
an increase in people's awareness of social changes
changes in the distribution system
greater numbers of journalists
newspapers becoming more expensive
a reduction in the cost of advertising
an increase in the number of people reading newspapers
the closing of newspapers that did not use photographs
Newspapers contained photographic reproductions.
Newspapers had fewer pages.
Magazines began to compete with newspapers.
There was a rise in demand.
The United Slates exported newspapers to other countries.
People were becoming increasingly aware of national and international issues.
Photographs made newspapers more interesting.
Communities remained isolated despite the growth of popular journalism
To document its prediction about the popularity of newspapers
To emphasize the influence of the printed word on a society undergoing rapid change
To illustrate how advanced the technology of printing had become
To demonstrate that hooks had replaced newspapers and magazines as the leading source of information