Soal Latihan dan Jawaban Reading Comprehension 51
Pennsylvania’s colonial ironmasters forged iron and a revolution that had both
industrial and political implications. The colonists in North America wanted the right
to the profits gained from their manufacturing. However, England wanted all of the
colonies’ rich ores and raw materials to feed its own factories, and also wanted the
(5) colonies to be a market for its finished goods. England passed legislation in 1750 to
prohibit colonists from making finished iron products, but by 1771, when entrepreneur
Mark Bird established the Hopewell blast furnace in Pennsylvania, iron making had
become the backbone of American industry. It also had become one of the major issues
that fomented the revolutionary break between England and the British colonies. By
(10) the time the War of Independence broke out in 1776, Bird, angered and determined,
was manufacturing cannons and shot at Hopewell to be used by the Continental Army.
After the war, Hopewell, along with hundreds of other “iron plantations,” continued
to form the new nation’s industrial foundation well into the nineteenth century. The
rural landscape became dotted with tall stone pyramids that breathed flames and
(15) smoke, charcoal-fueled iron furnaces that produced the versatile metal so crucial to
the nation’s growth. Generations of ironmasters, craftspeople, and workers produced
goods during war and peace-ranging from cannons and shot to domestic items such
as cast-iron stoves, pots, and sash weights for windows.
The region around Hopewell had everything needed for iron production: a wealth
(20) of iron ore near the surface, limestone for removing impurities from the iron, hardwood
forests to supply the charcoal used for fuel, rushing water to power the bellows that
pumped blasts of air into the furnace fires, and workers to supply the labor. By the
1830’s, Hopewell had developed a reputation for producing high quality cast-iron
stoves, for which there was a steady market. As Pennsylvania added more links to its
(25) transportation system of roads, canals, and railroads, it became easier to ship parts
made by Hopewell workers to sites all over the east coast. There they were assembled
into stoves and sold from Rhode Island to Maryland as the “Hopewell stove”. By the
time the last fires burned out at Hopewell ironworks in 1883, the community had
produced some 80,000 cast-iron stoves.
Reading Comprehension 51
reduce the price of English-made iron goods sold in the colonies
prevent the outbreak of the War of Independence
keep the colonies from establishing new markets for their raw materials.
require colonists to buy manufactured
There was an abundance of wood.
The center of operations of the army was nearby.
The metal ore was easy to acquire
Many workers were available in the area.
iron was used in the construction of various types of transportation
improvements in transportation benefited the Hopewell ironworks
the transportation system of Pennsylvania was superior to that of other states.
Hopewell never became a major transportation center
a maximum of
a variety of