Soal Latihan dan Jawaban Reading Comprehension 44

Friday, March 23rd, 2012 - reading comprehension

The history of clinical nutrition, or the study of the relationship between health

and how the body takes in and utilizes food substances, can be divided into four

distinct eras: the first began in the nineteenth century and extended into the early

twentieth century when it was recognized for the first time that food contained

(5)  constituents that were essential for human function and that different foods provided

different amounts of these essential agents. Near the end of this era, research studies

demonstrated that rapid weight loss was associated with nitrogen imbalance and

could only be rectified by providing adequate dietary protein associated with certain

foods.

 

(10)  The second era was initiated in the early decades of the twentieth century and

might be called “the vitamin period.” Vitamins came to be recognized in foods, and

deficiency syndromes were described. As vitamins became recognized as essential

food constituents necessary for health, it became tempting to suggest that every

disease and condition for which there had been no previous effective treatment might

(15)  be responsive to vitamin therapy. At that point in time, medical schools started to

become more interested in having their curricula integrate nutritional concepts into

the basic sciences. Much of the focus of this education was on the recognition of

vitamin deficiency symptoms. Herein lay the beginning of what ultimately turned from

ignorance to denial of the value of nutritional therapies in medicine. Reckless

(20)  claims were made for effects of vitamins that went far beyond what could actually

be achieved from the use of them.

 

In the third era of nutritional history in the early 1950’s to mid-1960’s, vitamin

therapy began to fall into disrepute. Concomitant with this, nutrition education in

medical schools also became less popular. It was just a decade before this that many

(25)  drug companies had found their vitamin sales skyrocketing and were quick to supply

practicing physicians with generous samples of vitamins and literature extolling the

virtue of supplementation for a variety of health-related conditions. Expectations

as to the success of vitamins in disease control were exaggerated. As is known in

retrospect, vitamin and mineral therapies are much less effective when applied to

(30)  health-crisis conditions than when applied to long-term problems of under nutrition

that lead to chronic health problems.

 

Reading Comprehension 44

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Question 1
What does the passage mainly discuss?
A
The effects of vitamins on the human body
B
Nutritional practices of the nineteenth century
C
The stages of development of clinical nutrition as a field of study
D
The history of food preferences from the nineteenth century to the present
Question 2
It can be inferred from the passage that which of the following discoveries was made during the first era in the history of nutrition?
A
Certain foods were found to be harmful to good health.
B
Vitamins were synthesized from foods.
C
Effective techniques of weight loss were determined.
D
Protein was recognized as an essential component of diet.
Question 3
The word "tempting" in line 13 is closest in meaning to
A
necessary
B
correct
C
attractive
D
realistic
Question 4
It can be inferred from the passage that medical schools began to teach concepts of nutrition in order to
A
encourage medical doctors to apply concepts of nutrition in the treatment of disease
B
convince doctors to conduct experimental vitamin therapies on their patients
C
convince medical doctors to participate in research studies on nutrition
D
support the creation of artificial vitamins
Question 5
The word "Reckless" in line 19 is closest in meaning to
A
recorded
B
informative
C
irresponsible
D
urgent
Question 6
The word 'them" in line 21 refers to
A
therapies
B
claims
C
effects
D
vitamins
Question 7
Why did vitamin therapy begin losing favor in the 1950's
A
The public lost interest in vitamins.
B
Claims for the effectiveness of vitamin therapy were seen to be exaggerated.
C
Medical schools stopped teaching nutritional concepts.
D
Nutritional research was of poor quality
Question 8
The phrase "concomitant with" in line 23 is closest in meaning to
A
in dispute with
B
prior to
C
in regard to
D
in conjunction with
Question 9
The word "skyrocketing" in line 25 is closest in meaning to
A
internationally popular
B
acceptable
C
surprising
D
increasing rapidly
Question 10
The word "extolling" in line 26 is closest in meaning to
A
praising
B
promising
C
questioning
D
analyzing
Question 11
The paragraph following the passage most probably discusses
A
how drug companies became successful
B
problems associated with undernutrition
C
why nutrition education lost its appeal
D
the fourth era of nutrition history
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