Soal Latihan dan Jawaban Reading Comprehension 44
The history of clinical nutrition, or the study of the relationship between health
and how the body takes in and utilizes food substances, can be divided into four
distinct eras: the first began in the nineteenth century and extended into the early
twentieth century when it was recognized for the first time that food contained
(5) constituents that were essential for human function and that different foods provided
different amounts of these essential agents. Near the end of this era, research studies
demonstrated that rapid weight loss was associated with nitrogen imbalance and
could only be rectified by providing adequate dietary protein associated with certain
(10) The second era was initiated in the early decades of the twentieth century and
might be called “the vitamin period.” Vitamins came to be recognized in foods, and
deficiency syndromes were described. As vitamins became recognized as essential
food constituents necessary for health, it became tempting to suggest that every
disease and condition for which there had been no previous effective treatment might
(15) be responsive to vitamin therapy. At that point in time, medical schools started to
become more interested in having their curricula integrate nutritional concepts into
the basic sciences. Much of the focus of this education was on the recognition of
vitamin deficiency symptoms. Herein lay the beginning of what ultimately turned from
ignorance to denial of the value of nutritional therapies in medicine. Reckless
(20) claims were made for effects of vitamins that went far beyond what could actually
be achieved from the use of them.
In the third era of nutritional history in the early 1950’s to mid-1960’s, vitamin
therapy began to fall into disrepute. Concomitant with this, nutrition education in
medical schools also became less popular. It was just a decade before this that many
(25) drug companies had found their vitamin sales skyrocketing and were quick to supply
practicing physicians with generous samples of vitamins and literature extolling the
virtue of supplementation for a variety of health-related conditions. Expectations
as to the success of vitamins in disease control were exaggerated. As is known in
retrospect, vitamin and mineral therapies are much less effective when applied to
(30) health-crisis conditions than when applied to long-term problems of under nutrition
that lead to chronic health problems.
Reading Comprehension 44
The effects of vitamins on the human body
Nutritional practices of the nineteenth century
The stages of development of clinical nutrition as a field of study
The history of food preferences from the nineteenth century to the present
Certain foods were found to be harmful to good health.
Vitamins were synthesized from foods.
Effective techniques of weight loss were determined.
Protein was recognized as an essential component of diet.
encourage medical doctors to apply concepts of nutrition in the treatment of disease
convince doctors to conduct experimental vitamin therapies on their patients
convince medical doctors to participate in research studies on nutrition
support the creation of artificial vitamins
The public lost interest in vitamins.
Claims for the effectiveness of vitamin therapy were seen to be exaggerated.
Medical schools stopped teaching nutritional concepts.
Nutritional research was of poor quality
in dispute with
in regard to
in conjunction with
how drug companies became successful
problems associated with undernutrition
why nutrition education lost its appeal
the fourth era of nutrition history