Soal Latihan dan Jawaban Reading Comprehension 43
Fungi, of which there are over 100,000 species, including yeasts and other
single-celled organisms as well as the common molds and mushrooms, were
formerly classified as members of the plant kingdom. However, in reality they are
very different from plants and today they are placed in a separate group altogether.
(5) The principal reason for this is that none of them possesses chlorophyll, and since
they cannot synthesize their own carbohydrates, they obtain their supplies either
from the breakdown of dead organic matter or from other living organisms.
Furthermore the walls of fungal cells are not made of cellulose, as those of plants
are, but of another complex sugarlike polymer called chitin, the material from which
(10) the hard outer skeletons of shrimps, spiders, and insects are made. The difference
between the chemical composition of the cell walls of fungi and those of plants
is of enormous importance because it enables the tips of the growing hyphae, the
threadlike cells of the fungus, to secrete enzymes that break down the walls of plant
cells without having any effect on those of the fungus itself. It is these cellulose –
(15) destroying enzymes that enable fungi to attack anything made from wood, wood
pulp, cotton, flax, or other plant material.
The destructive power of fungi is impressive. They are a major cause of structural
damage to building timbers, a cause of disease in animals and humans, and one of
the greatest causes of agricultural losses. Entire crops can be wiped out by fungal
(20) attacks both before and after harvesting. Some fungi can grow at + 50OC, while
others can grow at -5C, so even food in cold storage may not be completely safe
from them. On the other hand, fungi bring about the decomposition of dead organic
matter, thus enriching the soil and returning carbon dioxide to the atmosphere. They
also enter into a number of mutually beneficial relationships with plants and other
(25) organisms. In addition, fungi are the source of many of the most potent antibiotics
used in clinical medicine, including penicillin.
Reading Comprehension 43
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Differences between fungi and plants
Functions of chlorophyll in plants
Differences between simply and complex fungi
Functions of sugar in the walls of fungal cells
Some single-cell organisms are no longer classified as fungi.
Theories about the chemical composition of fungi have been revised.
New methods of species identification have been introduced
Fungi are no longer classified as plants
They synthesize chlorophyll to produce carbohydrates.
They acquire carbohydrates from other organic matter, both living and dead.
The absorb carbohydrates from their own cell walls.
They produce carbohydrates by breaking down chitin.
can be destroyed by fungi
secrete the same enzymes as the walls of fungal cells do
have unusual chemical compositions
contain a material found in the walls of fungal cells
"hyphae" (line 12)
"enzymes" (line 13)
"polymer" (line 9)
"chlorophyll" (line 5)
They destroy crops.
They synthesize cellulose.
They secrete enzymes.
They grow hyphae.
a beneficial use of fungi
a type of fungi that grows at extreme temperatures.
a product of the relationship between plants and fungi
a medicine derived from plants