Soal Latihan dan Jawaban Reading Comprehension 43

Thursday, March 22nd, 2012 - reading comprehension

Fungi, of which there are over 100,000 species, including yeasts and other

single-celled organisms as well as the common molds and mushrooms, were

formerly classified as members of the plant kingdom. However, in reality they are

very different from plants and today they are placed in a separate group altogether.

(5)  The principal reason for this is that none of them possesses chlorophyll, and since

they cannot synthesize their own carbohydrates, they obtain their supplies either

from the breakdown of dead organic matter or from other living organisms.

Furthermore the walls of fungal cells are not made of cellulose, as those of plants

are, but of another complex sugarlike polymer called chitin, the material from which

(10)  the hard outer skeletons of shrimps, spiders, and insects are made. The difference

between the chemical composition of the cell walls of fungi and those of plants

is of enormous importance because it enables the tips of the growing hyphae, the

threadlike cells of the fungus, to secrete enzymes that break down the walls of plant

cells without having any effect on those of the fungus itself. It is these cellulose –

(15)  destroying enzymes that enable fungi to attack anything made from wood, wood

pulp, cotton, flax, or other plant material.

 

The destructive power of fungi is impressive. They are a major cause of structural

damage to building timbers, a cause of disease in animals and humans, and one of

the greatest causes of agricultural losses. Entire crops can be wiped out by fungal

(20)  attacks both before and after harvesting. Some fungi can grow at + 50OC, while

others can grow at -5C, so even food in cold storage may not be completely safe

from them. On the other hand, fungi bring about the decomposition of dead organic

matter, thus enriching the soil and returning carbon dioxide to the atmosphere. They

also enter into a number of mutually beneficial relationships with plants and other

(25)  organisms. In addition, fungi are the source of many of the most potent antibiotics

used in clinical medicine, including penicillin.

 

Reading Comprehension 43

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Your answers are highlighted below.
Question 1
What does paragraph 1 mainly discuss?
A
Differences between fungi and plants
B
Functions of chlorophyll in plants
C
Differences between simply and complex fungi
D
Functions of sugar in the walls of fungal cells
Question 2
Which of the following is mentioned as a major change in how scientists approach the study of fungi?
A
Some single-cell organisms are no longer classified as fungi.
B
Theories about the chemical composition of fungi have been revised.
C
New methods of species identification have been introduced
D
Fungi are no longer classified as plants
Question 3
The word "principal" in line 5 is closest in meaning to
A
main
B
true
C
logical
D
obvious
Question 4
According to the passage, how do fungi obtain carbohydrates?
A
They synthesize chlorophyll to produce carbohydrates.
B
They acquire carbohydrates from other organic matter, both living and dead.
C
The absorb carbohydrates from their own cell walls.
D
They produce carbohydrates by breaking down chitin.
Question 5
The passage mentions shrimps, spiders, and insects in line 10 because their skeletons
A
can be destroyed by fungi
B
secrete the same enzymes as the walls of fungal cells do
C
have unusual chemical compositions
D
contain a material found in the walls of fungal cells
Question 6
Which of the following terms is defined in the passage?
A
"hyphae" (line 12)
B
"enzymes" (line 13)
C
"polymer" (line 9)
D
"chlorophyll" (line 5)
Question 7
The word "those" in line 14 refers to
A
hyphae
B
walls
C
enzymes
D
tips
Question 8
Fungi have all of the following characteristics EXCEPT
A
They destroy crops.
B
They synthesize cellulose.
C
They secrete enzymes.
D
They grow hyphae.
Question 9
The word "Entire" in line 19 is closest in meaning to
A
certain
B
mature
C
diseased
D
whole
Question 10
The passage describes the negative effects of fungi on all the following EXCEPT
A
food
B
buildings
C
animals
D
soil
Question 11
The phrase "bring about" in line 22 is closest in meaning to
A
join
B
cause
C
take
D
include
Question 12
The passage mentions "penicillin" in line 26 as an example of
A
a beneficial use of fungi
B
a type of fungi that grows at extreme temperatures.
C
a product of the relationship between plants and fungi
D
a medicine derived from plants
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