Soal Latihan dan Jawaban Reading Comprehension 42
Perhaps the most obvious way artistic creation reflect how people live is by
mirroring the environment-the materials and technologies available to a culture.
Stone, wood, tree bark, clay, and sand are generally available materials. In addition,
depending on the locality, other resources may be accessible: shells, horns, gold,
(5) copper, and silver. The different uses to which societies put these materials are of
interest to anthropologists who may ask, for example, why a people chooses to use
clay and not copper when both items are available. Although there are no conclusive
answers yet, the way in which a society views its environment is sometimes apparent
in its choice and use of artistic materials. The use of certain metals, for example, may
(10) be reserved for ceremonial objects of special importance. Or the belief in the
supernatural powers of a stone or tree may cause a sculptor to be sensitive to that
What is particularly meaningful to anthropologist is the realization that although
the materials available to a society may to some extent limit or influence what it can do
(15) artistically, the materials by no means determine what is done. Why does the artist in
Japanese society rake sand into patterns; and the artist in Roman society melt sand to
form glass? Moreover, even when the same material is used in the same way by
members of different societies, the form or style of the work varies enormously from
culture to culture. A society may simply choose to represent objects or phenomena that
(20) are important to its population. An examination of the art of the Middle Ages tells us
something about the medieval preoccupation with theological doctrine. In addition to
revealing the primary concerns of a society, the content of that society’s art may also
reflect the culture’s social stratification.
Reading Comprehension 42
more difficult to handle than wood and stone
essential to create ceremonial objects
commonly used by artists in all societies
available only in specific locations
As an illustration of the impact of the environment on religious beliefs
To emphasize the unusual properties of certain materials
As an example of how art can be influenced by cultural beliefs
To show that some sculptors avoid working with specific materials
of the unique stylistic features of their art
of their stable social conditions
they influenced each other
they used the same artistic material in very different ways
Japanese artists use it to create artistic patterns.
Its use varies from culture to culture.
It is used to create glass.
Roman artists mix it into their paints.