Soal Latihan dan Jawaban Reading Comprehension 38
Television has transformed politics in the United States by changing the way in
which information is disseminated, by altering political campaigns, and by changing
citizen’s patterns of response to politics. By giving citizens independent access to the
candidates, television diminished the role of the political party in the selection of the
(5) major party candidates. By centering politics on the person of the candidate, television
accelerated the citizen’s focus on character rather than issues.
Television has altered the forms of political communication as well. The messages
on which most of us rely are briefer than they once were. The stump speech, a political
speech given by traveling politicians and lasting 3/2 to 2 hours, which characterized
(10) nineteenth-century political discourse, has given way to the 30-second advertisement
and the 10 second “sound bite” in broadcast news. Increasingly the audience for
speeches is not that standing in front of the politician but rather the viewing audience
who will hear and see a snippet of the speech on the news.
In these abbreviated forms, much of what constituted the traditional political
(15) discourse of earlier ages has been lost. In 15 or 30 seconds, a speaker cannot establish
the historical context that shaped the issue in question, cannot detail the probable
causes of the problem, and cannot examine alternative proposals to argue that one is
preferable to others. In snippets, politicians assert but do not argue.
Because television is an intimate medium, speaking through it require a changed
(20) political style that was more conversational, personal, and visual than that of the oldstyle
stump speech. Reliance on television means that increasingly our political world
contains memorable pictures rather than memorable words. Schools teach us to analyze
words and print. However, in a word in which politics is increasingly visual, informed
citizenship requires a new set of skills.
(25) Recognizing the power of television’s pictures, politicians craft televisual, staged
events, called pseudo-event, designed to attract media coverage. Much of the political
activity we see on television news has been crafted by politicians, their speechwriters,
and their public relations advisers for televised consumption. Sound bites in news and
answers to questions in debates increasingly sound like advertisements.
Reading Comprehension 38
Citizens in the United States are now more informed about political issues because of television coverage.
Citizens in the United States prefer to see politicians on television instead of in person.
Politics in the United States has been significantly changed by television.
Politics in the United States has become substantially more controversial since the introduction of television.
attracted more members
spent more money to promote their political candidates
had more influence over the selection of political candidates
received more money
an interactive discussion between two politicians
a style of speech common to televised political events
an event created by politicians to attract media attention
a kind of political presentation typical of the nineteenth century
been replaced by
added interest to
making politics seem more intimate to citizens
placing political issues within a historical context
allowing news coverage of political candidates
providing detailed information about a candidates private behavior
make claims without providing reasons for the claims
enjoy explaining the issue to broadcasters
take stronger positions on issues than in the past
dislike having to explain their own positions on issues to citizens
politicians will need to learn to become more personal when meeting citizens
politicians who are considered very attractive are favored by citizens over politicians who are less attractive
citizens will need to learn how to evaluate visual political images in order to become better informed
citizens tend to favor a politician who analyzed the issue over one who does not
create more time to discuss political issues
obtain more television coverage for themselves
spend more time talking to citizens in person
engages in debates with their opponents
Political presentations today are more like advertisements than in the past.
Politicians today tend to be more familiar with the views of citizens than in the past.
Political speeches today focus more on details about issues than in the past.
Citizens today are less informed about a politician's character than in the past.