Soal Latihan dan Jawaban Reading Comprehension 38

Thursday, March 22nd, 2012 - reading comprehension

Television has transformed politics in the United States by changing the way in

which information is disseminated, by altering political campaigns, and by changing

citizen’s patterns of response to politics. By giving citizens independent access to the

candidates, television diminished the role of the political party in the selection of the

(5)  major party candidates. By centering politics on the person of the candidate, television

accelerated the citizen’s focus on character rather than issues.

 

Television has altered the forms of political communication as well. The messages

on which most of us rely are briefer than they once were. The stump speech, a political

speech given by traveling politicians and lasting 3/2 to 2 hours, which characterized

(10)  nineteenth-century political discourse, has given way to the 30-second advertisement

and the 10 second “sound bite” in broadcast news. Increasingly the audience for

speeches is not that standing in front of the politician but rather the viewing audience

who will hear and see a snippet of the speech on the news.

 

In these abbreviated forms, much of what constituted the traditional political

(15)  discourse of earlier ages has been lost. In 15 or 30 seconds, a speaker cannot establish

the historical context that shaped the issue in question, cannot detail the probable

causes of the problem, and cannot examine alternative proposals to argue that one is

preferable to others. In snippets, politicians assert but do not argue.

 

Because television is an intimate medium, speaking through it require a changed

(20)  political style that was more conversational, personal, and visual than that of the oldstyle

stump speech. Reliance on television means that increasingly our political world

contains memorable pictures rather than memorable words. Schools teach us to analyze

words and print. However, in a word in which politics is increasingly visual, informed

citizenship requires a new set of skills.

 

(25)  Recognizing the power of television’s pictures, politicians craft televisual, staged

events, called pseudo-event, designed to attract media coverage. Much of the political

activity we see on television news has been crafted by politicians, their speechwriters,

and their public relations advisers for televised consumption. Sound bites in news and

answers to questions in debates increasingly sound like advertisements.

 

Reading Comprehension 38

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Question 1
What is the main point of the passage?
A
Citizens in the United States are now more informed about political issues because of television coverage.
B
Citizens in the United States prefer to see politicians on television instead of in person.
C
Politics in the United States has been significantly changed by television.
D
Politics in the United States has become substantially more controversial since the introduction of television.
Question 2
The word "disseminated" in line 2 is closest in meaning to
A
stored
B
analyzed
C
spread
D
discussed
Question 3
It can be inferred that before the introduction of television, political parties
A
attracted more members
B
spent more money to promote their political candidates
C
had more influence over the selection of political candidates
D
received more money
Question 4
The word "accelerated" in line 6 is closest in meaning to
A
started
B
allowed
C
required
D
increased
Question 5
The author mentions the "stump speech" in line 8 as an example of
A
an interactive discussion between two politicians
B
a style of speech common to televised political events
C
an event created by politicians to attract media attention
D
a kind of political presentation typical of the nineteenth century
Question 6
The phrase "given way to" in line 10 is closest in meaning to
A
been replaced by
B
added interest to
C
imitated
D
modified
Question 7
The word "that" in line 12 refers to
A
audience
B
politician
C
advertisement
D
broadcast news
Question 8
According to the passage, as compared with televised speeches, traditional political discourse was more successful at
A
making politics seem more intimate to citizens
B
placing political issues within a historical context
C
allowing news coverage of political candidates
D
providing detailed information about a candidates private behavior
Question 9
The author states that "politicians assert but do not argue" (line 18) in order to suggest that politicians
A
make claims without providing reasons for the claims
B
enjoy explaining the issue to broadcasters
C
take stronger positions on issues than in the past
D
dislike having to explain their own positions on issues to citizens
Question 10
The word "Reliance" in line 21 is closest in meaning to
A
clarification
B
abundance
C
dependence
D
information
Question 11
The purpose of paragraph 4 is to suggest that
A
politicians will need to learn to become more personal when meeting citizens
B
politicians who are considered very attractive are favored by citizens over politicians who are less attractive
C
citizens will need to learn how to evaluate visual political images in order to become better informed
D
citizens tend to favor a politician who analyzed the issue over one who does not
Question 12
According to paragraph 5, staged political events are created so that politicians can
A
create more time to discuss political issues
B
obtain more television coverage for themselves
C
spend more time talking to citizens in person
D
engages in debates with their opponents
Question 13
Which of the following statements is supported by the passage?
A
Political presentations today are more like advertisements than in the past.
B
Politicians today tend to be more familiar with the views of citizens than in the past.
C
Political speeches today focus more on details about issues than in the past.
D
Citizens today are less informed about a politician's character than in the past.
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