Soal Latihan dan Jawaban Reading Comprehension 37
The term “Hudson River school” was applied to the foremost representatives of
nineteenth-century North American landscape painting. Apparently unknown during
the golden days of the American landscape movement, which began around 1850 and
lasted until the late 1860’s, the Hudson River school seems to have emerged in the
(5) 1870’s as a direct result of the struggle between the old and the new generations of
artists, each to assert its own style as the representative American art. The older
painters, most of whom were born before 1835, practiced in a mode often self-taught
and monopolized by landscape subject matter and were securely established in and
fostered by the reigning American art organization, the National Academy of Design.
(10) The younger painters returning home from training in Europe worked more with figural
subject matter and in a bold and impressionistic technique; their prospects for
patronage in their own country were uncertain, and they sought to attract it by attaining
academic recognition in New York. One of the results of the conflict between the two
factions was that what in previous years had been referred to as the “American”,
(15) “native”, or, occasionally, “New York” school – the most representative school of
American art in any genre – had by 1890 become firmly established in the minds of
critics and public alike as the Hudson River school.
The sobriquet was first applied around 1879. While it was not intended as flattering,
it was hardly inappropriate. The Academicians at whom it was aimed had worked and
(20) socialized in New York, the Hudson’s port city, and had painted the river and its shores
with varying frequency. Most important, perhaps, was that they had all maintained with
a certain fidelity a manner of technique and composition consistent with those of
America’s first popular landscape artist, Thomas Cole, who built a career painting the
Catskill Mountain scenery bordering the Hudson River. A possible implication in the
(25) term applied to the group of landscapists was that many of them had, like Cole, lived
on or near the banks of the Hudson. Further, the river had long served as the principal
route to other sketching grounds favored by the Academicians, particularly the
Adirondacks and the mountains of Vermont and New Hampshire.
Reading Comprehension 37
The National Academy of Design
Paintings that featured the Hudson River
The training of American artists in European academies
North American landscape paintings
It mediated conflicts between artists.
It supported their growth and development.
It supervised the incorporation of new artistic techniques.
It determined which subjects were appropriate.
In the Adirondacks
In New Hampshire