Soal Latihan dan Jawaban Reading Comprehension 36

Wednesday, March 21st, 2012 - reading comprehension

Elizabeth Hazen and Rachel Brown copatented one of the most widely acclaimed

wonder drugs of the post-Second World War years. Hazen and Brown’s work was

stimulated by the wartime need to find a cure for the fungus infections that afflicted

many military personnel. Scientists had been feverishly searching for an antibiotic

(5)  toxic enough to kill the fungi but safe enough for human use, since, unfortunately, the

new “wonder drugs” such as penicillin and streptomycin killed the very bacteria in the

body that controlled the fungi. It was to discover a fungicide without that double effect

that Brown, of New York State’s Department of Health Laboratories at Albany, and

Hazen, senior microbiologist at the Department of Health in New York, began their

(10)  long-distance collaboration. Based upon Hazen’s previous research at Columbia

University, where she had built an impressive collection of fungus cultures, both were

convinced that an antifungal organism already existed in certain soils.

 

They divided the work. Hazen methodically screened and cultured scores of soil

samples, which she then sent to her partner, who prepared extracts, isolated and

(15)  purified active agents, and shipped them back to New York, where Hazen could study

their biological properties. On a 1948 vacation, Hazen fortuitously collected a clump of

soil from the edge of W.B. Nourse’s cow pasture in Fauquier County, Virginia, that,

when tested, revealed the presence of the microorganisms. In farm owner Nourse’s

honor. Hazen named it Streptomyces noursei, and within a year the two scientists knew

(20)  that the properties of their substance distinguished it from previously described

antibiotics. After further research they eventually reduced their substance to a fine,

yellow powder, which they first named “fungiciden.” Then renamed “nystatin”

(to honor the New York State laboratory) when they learned the previous name was

already in use. Of their major discovery, Brown said lightly that it simply illustrated

(25)  “how unpredictable consequences can come from rather modest beginnings.”

 

Reading Comprehension 36

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Question 1
What is the main topic of the passage?
A
The lives of Hazen and Brown.
B
The development of a safe fungicide.
C
The New York State Department of Health.
D
The development of penicillin.
Question 2
What can be inferred from the passage about penicillin?
A
One of its by-products is nystatin.
B
It was developed before the Second World War.
C
It effectively treats fungus infections.
D
It was developed before nystatin.
Question 3
Why does the author mention Columbia University in lines 10 and 11?
A
It awarded a prize to Hazen and Brown.
B
Hazen and Brown developed nystatin there.
C
Hazen did research there.
D
Brown was educated there.
Question 4
The word "both" in line 11 refers to
A
Hazen and Brown
B
double effect
C
penicillin and streptomycin
D
the Department of Health laboratories at Albany and New York
Question 5
What substance did Brown and Hazen analyze?
A
Dirt
B
Amoeba
C
Streptomycin
D
Bacteria
Question 6
Who was W. B. Nourse?
A
A teacher of Hazen's
B
A farmer
C
A collector of fungi
D
A microbiologist
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