Soal Latihan dan Jawaban Reading Comprehension 35

Wednesday, March 21st, 2012 - reading comprehension

Researchers in the field of psychology have found that one of the best ways to make

an important decision, such as choosing a university to attend or a business to invest in,

involves the utilization of a decision worksheet. Psychologists who study optimization

compare the actual decisions made by people to theoretical ideal decisions to see how

(5)  similar they are. Proponents of the worksheet procedure believe that it will yield

optimal, that is, the best decisions. Although there are several variations on the exact

format that worksheets can take, they are all similar in their essential aspects.

Worksheets require defining the problem in a clear and concise way and then listing all

possible solutions to the problem. Next, the pertinent considerations that will be

(10)  affected by each decision are listed, and the relative importance of each consideration

or consequence is determined. Each consideration is assigned a numerical value to

reflect its relative importance. A decision is mathematically calculated by adding these

values together. The alternative with the highest number of points emerges as the best

decision.

 

(15)  Since most important problems are multifaceted, there are several alternatives to

choose from, each with unique advantages and disadvantages. One of the benefits of a

pencil and paper decision-making procedure is that it permits people to deal with more

variables than their minds can generally comprehend and remember. On the average,

people can keep about seven ideas in their minds at once. A worksheet can be

(20)  especially useful when the decision involves a large number of variables with complex

relationships. A realistic example for many college students is the question “What will

I do after graduation?” A graduate might seek a position that offers specialized

training, pursue an advanced degree, or travel abroad for a year.

 

A decision-making worksheet begins with a succinct statement of the problem that

(25)  will also help to narrow it. It is important to be clear about the distinction between

long-range and immediate goals because long-range goals often involve a different

decision than short-range ones. Focusing on long-range goals, a graduating student

might revise the question above to “What will I do after graduation that will lead to a

successful career?”

 

Reading Comprehension 35

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Question 1
What does the passage mainly discuss?
A
Research on how people make decisions
B
Differences between long-range and short-range decision making
C
A tool to assist in making complex decisions.
D
A comparison of actual decisions and ideal decisions
Question 2
The word "essential" in line 7 is closest in meaning to
A
beneficial
B
introductory
C
fundamental
D
changeable
Question 3
The word "pertinent" in line 9 is closest in meaning to
A
preceding
B
responsive
C
insightful
D
relevant
Question 4
Of the following steps, which occurs before the others in making a decision worksheet?
A
Writing down all possible solutions
B
Listing the consequences of each solution
C
Deciding which consequences are most important
D
Calculating a numerical summary of each solution
Question 5
According to decision-worksheet theory, an optimal decision is defined as one that
A
has the most points assigned to it
B
has the fewest variables to consider
C
uses the most decision worksheets
D
is agreed to by the greatest number of people
Question 6
The author develops the discussion in paragraph I by means of
A
describing a process
B
classifying types of worksheets
C
providing historical background
D
explaining a theory
Question 7
The author states that "On the average, people can keep about seven ideas in their minds at once (lines 18-19) to explain that
A
most decisions involve seven steps
B
people can learn to keep more than seven ideas in their minds with practice
C
human mental capacity has limitations
D
some people have difficulty making minor as well as major decisions
Question 8
The word "succinct "in line 24 is closest in meaning to
A
satisfactory
B
creative
C
concise
D
personal
Question 9
Which of the following terms is defined in the passage?
A
Long-range goals (line 26)
B
Optimal (line 6)
C
Variables (line 18)
D
Proponents (line 5)
Question 10
The word "it" in line 25 refers to
A
worksheet
B
problem
C
decision
D
distinction
Question 11
The word "revise" in line 28 is closest in meaning to
A
explain
B
change
C
ask
D
predict
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