Soal Latihan dan Jawaban Reading Comprehension 34
Although only 1 person in 20 in the Colonial period lived in a city, the cities had a
disproportionate influence on the development of North America. They were at the
cutting edge of social change. It was in the cities that the elements that can be
associated with modern capitalism first appeared – the use of money and commercial
(5) paper in place of barter, open competition in place of social deference and hierarchy,
with an attendant rise in social disorder, and the appearance of factories using coat or
water power in place of independent craftspeople working with hand tools. “The cities
predicted the future,” wrote historian Gary. B. Nash, “even though they were but
overgrown villages compared to the great urban centers of Europe, the Middle East
(10) and China.”
Except for Boston, whose population stabilized at about 16,000 in 1760, cities grew
by exponential leaps through the eighteenth century. In the fifteen years prior to the
outbreak of the War for independence in 1775, more than 200,000 immigrants arrived
on North American shores. This meant that a population the size of Boston was
(15) arriving every year, and most of it flowed into the port cities in the Northeast.
Philadelphia’s population nearly doubted in those years, reaching about 30,000 in
1774, New York grew at almost the same rate, reaching about 25,000 by 1775.
The quality of the hinterland dictated the pace of growth of the cities. The land
surrounding Boston had always been poor farm country, and by the mid-eighteenth
(20) century it was virtually stripped of its timber. The available farmland was occupied,
there was little in the region beyond the city to attract immigrants. New York and
Philadelphia, by contrast, served a rich and fertile hinterland laced with navigable
watercourses. Scots, Irish, and Germans landed in these cities and followed the rivers
inland. The regions around the cities of New York and Philadelphia became the
(25) breadbaskets of North America, sending grain not only to other colonies but also to
England and southern Europe, where crippling droughts in the late 1760’s created a
whole new market.
Reading Comprehension 34
The decline of farming in areas surrounding cities
The growth and influence of cities
The causes of immigration to cities
The effects of war on the growth of cities
The cities were growing at a great rate.
Most people pretended to live in cities
The populations of the cities were small, but their influence was great.
The influence of the cities was mostly negative
in addition to
frequent social disorder
few power sources
More than 200,000
quality of farmland
opportunities for fishing
type of grain grown
origin of immigrants
They supplied grain to other parts of North America and other countries.
They consumed more grain than all the other regions of North America.
They stored large quantities of grain during periods of drought
They produced grain especially for making bread.