Soal Latihan dan Jawaban Reading Comprehension 30
In seventeenth-century colonial North America, all day-to-day cooking was done in the
fireplace. Generally large, fireplaces were planned for cooking as well as for warmth. Those in
the Northeast were usually four or five feet high, and in the South, they were
often high enough for a person to walk into. A heavy timber called the mantel tree was
(5) used as a lintel to support the stonework above the fireplace opening. This timber might be
scorched occasionally, but it was far enough in front of the rising column of heat to be safe from
Two ledges were built across from each other on the inside of the chimney.
On these rested the ends of a “lug pole” from which pots were suspended when cooking. Wood
(10) from a freshly cut tree was used for the lug pole, so it would resist heat, but it had to be
replaced frequently because it dried out and charred, and was thus weakened. Sometimes the
pole broke and the dinner fell into the fire. When iron became easier to obtain, it was used
instead of wood for lug poles, and later fireplaces had pivoting metal rods to hang pots from.
Beside the fireplace and built as part of it was the oven. It was made like a small,
(15) secondary fireplace with a flue leading into the main chimney to draw out smoke.
Sometimes the door of the oven faced the room, but most ovens were built with the
opening facing into the fireplace. On baking days (usually once or twice a week) a roaring
fire of “oven wood,” consisting of brown maple sticks, was maintained in the oven until its
walls were extremely hot. The embers were later removed, bread dough was put into the
oven, and the oven was sealed shut until the bread was fully baked.
Not all baking was done in a big oven, however. Also used was an iron “bake kettle,”
which looked like a stewpot on legs and which had an iron lid. This is said to have worked
well when it was placed in the fireplace, surrounded by glowing wood embers, with more
embers piled on its lid.
Reading Comprehension 30
The types of wood used in preparing meals
Methods of baking bread
The use of iron kettles in a typical kitchen
that they served diverse functions
how they were safer than northeastern fireplaces
how the materials used were similar to the materials used in northeastern fireplaces
that they were usually larger than northeastern fireplaces
the fireplace opening
the rising column of heat
the mantel tree
By filling the pot with hot water
By hanging the pot on a pole over the fire
By putting the pot in the oven
By placing the pot directly into the fire
It became too hot to touch.
It occasionally broke.
It was difficult to move or rotate.
It was made of wood not readily available.
It was used to heat the kitchen every day.
It was built as part of the main fireplace.
It was heated with maple sticks.
The smoke it generated went out through the main chimney.
It could be used to cook several foods at one time.
It did not need to be tightly closed.
It did not take up a lot of space in the fireplace.
It could be used in addition to or instead of the oven.