Soal Latihan dan Jawaban Reading Comprehension 29

Wednesday, March 21st, 2012 - reading comprehension

One area of paleoanthropological study involves the eating and dietary habits of

hominids, erect bipedal primates—including early humans. It is clear that at some

stage of history, humans began to carry their food to central places, called home bases, where

it was shared and consumed with the young and other adults. The use of home bases is a

(5)  fundamental component of human social behavior; the common meal

served at a common hearth is a powerful symbol, a mark of social unity. Home base behavior

does not occur among nonhuman primates and is rare among mammals. It is unclear

when humans began to use home bases, what kind of communications and social relations

were involved, and what the ecological and food-choice contexts of the shift were. Work on early

(10)  tools,  surveys of paleoanthropological sites, development and testing of broad ecological

theories, and advances in comparative primatology are contributing to knowledge about this

central chapter in human prehistory. One innovative approach to these issues involves

studying damage and wear on stone tools.

 

Researchers make tools that replicate excavated specimens as closely as possible

(15)  and then try to use them as the originals might have been used, in woodcutting,

hunting, or cultivation. Depending on how the tool is used, characteristic chippage patterns

and microscopically distinguishable polishes develop near the edges. The first application

of this method of analysis to stone tools that are 1.5 million to 2 million years old indicates

that, from the start, an important function of early stone tools was to extract highly

(20)  nutritious food—meat and marrow-from large animal carcasses. Fossil bones with

cut marks caused by stone tools have been discovered lying in the same 2-million-year-old

layers that yielded the oldest such tools and the oldest hominid specimens (including humans)

with larger than ape-sized brains. This discovery increases scientists’ certainty

about when human ancestors began to eat more meat than present-day nonhuman

(25)  primates. But several questions remain unanswered: how frequently meat eating occurred;

what the social implications of meat eating were; and whether the increased use of meat

coincides with the beginnings of the use of home bases.

Reading Comprehension 29

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Question 1
The passage mainly discusses which of the following aspects of hominid behavior?
A
The creation of stone hunting tools
B
Methods of extracting nutritious food from carcasses
C
Social interactions at home bases
D
Changes in eating and dietary practices
Question 2
According to the passage, bringing a meal to a location to be shared by many individuals is
A
a behavior that encourages better dietary habits
B
an indication of social unity.
C
an activity typical of nonhuman primates
D
a common practice among animals that eat meat
Question 3
The word "consumed" in line 4 is closest in meaning to
A
distributed
B
stored
C
prepared
D
eaten
Question 4
According to paragraph 2, researchers make copies of old stone tools in order to
A
protect the old tools from being worn out
B
display examples of the old tools in museums
C
test theories about how old tools were used
D
learn how to improve the design of modern tools
Question 5
In paragraph 2, the author mentions all of the following as examples of ways in which early stone tools were used EXCEPT to
A
obtain food
B
shape wood
C
make weapons
D
build home bases
Question 6
The word "innovative" in line 13 is closest in meaning to
A
simple
B
costly
C
new
D
good
Question 7
The word "them" in line 15 refers to
A
specimens
B
tools
C
issues
D
researchers
Question 8
The author mentions "characteristic chippage patterns" in line 16 as an example of
A
impressions left on prehistoric animal bones
B
indications of wear on stone tools
C
differences among tools made of various substances
D
decorations cut into wooden objects
Question 9
The word "extract" in line 19 is closest in meaning to
A
identify
B
destroy
C
remove
D
compare
Question 10
The word "whether" in line 26 is closest in meaning to
A
how
B
if
C
when
D
why
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