Soal Latihan dan Jawaban Reading Comprehension 23
According to sociologists, there are several different ways in which a person may
become recognized as the leader of a social group in the United States. In the family,
traditional cultural patterns confer leadership on one or both of the parents. In other cases,
such as friendship groups, one or more persons may gradually emerge as leaders, although
(5) there is no formal process of selection. In larger groups, leaders are usually chosen formally
through election or recruitment.
Although leaders are often thought to be people with unusual personal ability, decades
of research have failed to produce consistent evidence that there is any category of “natural
leaders.” It seems that there is no set of personal qualities that all leaders have in common;
(10) rather, virtually any person may be recognized as a leader if the person has qualities that
meet the needs of that particular group.
Furthermore, although it is commonly supposed that social groups have a single leader,
research suggests that there are typically two different leadership roles that are held by
different individuals. Instrumental leadership is leadership that emphasizes the completion
(15) of tasks by a social group. Group members look to instrumental leaders to “get things”
done.” Expressive leadership, on the other hand, is leadership that emphasizes the
collective well-being of a social group’s member. Expressive leader are less concerned
with the overall goals of the group than with providing emotional support to group
members and attempting to minimize tension and conflict among them. Group members
(20) expect expressive leaders to maintain stable relationships within the group and provide
support to individual members.
Instrumental leaders are likely to have a rather secondary relationship to other group
members. They give orders and may discipline group members who inhibit attainment of
the group’s goals. Expressive leaders cultivate a more personal or primary relationship to
(25) others in the group. They offer sympathy when someone experiences difficulties or is
subjected to discipline, are quick to lighten a serious moment with humor ,and try to
resolve issues that threaten to divide the group. As the differences in these two roles
suggest, expressive leaders generally receive more personal affection from group members;
instrumental leaders, if they are successful in promoting group goals, may enjoy a mote
Reading Comprehension 23
How social groups determine who will lead them
How leadership differs in small and large groups
The role of leaders in social groups
The problems faced by leaders
formal election process
specific leadership training
traditional cultural patterns
“natural leaders’ are easily accepted by the members of a social group
there is no proof that “natural leaders” exist
few people qualify as “natural leaders”
“natural leaders” share a similar set of characteristics
Most people desire to be leaders but can produce little evidence of their qualifications.
Few people succeed in sharing a leadership role with another person.
A person who is an effective leader of a particular group may not be an effective leader in another group.
A person can best learn how to be an effective leader by studying research on leadership.
sharing responsibility with group members
ensuring harmonious relationships
achieving a goal
identifying new leaders
tension and conflict
goals of the group
avoid thinking about
find a solution for
examples that illustrate a problem
cause and effect analysis
comparison and contrast
narration of events