Soal Latihan dan Jawaban Reading Comprehension 23

Wednesday, March 21st, 2012 - reading comprehension

According to sociologists, there are several different ways in which a person may

become recognized as the leader of a social group in the United States. In the family,

traditional cultural patterns confer leadership on one or both of the parents. In other cases,

such as friendship groups, one or more persons may gradually emerge as leaders, although

(5)  there is no formal process of selection. In larger groups, leaders are usually chosen formally

through election or recruitment.

 

Although leaders are often thought to be people with unusual personal ability, decades

of research have failed to produce consistent evidence that there is any category of “natural

leaders.” It seems that there is no set of personal qualities that all leaders have in common;

(10)  rather, virtually any person may be recognized as a leader if the person has qualities that

meet the needs of that particular group.

 

Furthermore, although it is commonly supposed that social groups have a single leader,

research suggests that there are typically two different leadership roles that are held by

different individuals. Instrumental leadership is leadership that emphasizes the completion

(15)  of tasks by a social group. Group members look to instrumental leaders to “get things”

done.” Expressive leadership, on the other hand, is leadership that emphasizes the

collective well-being of a social group’s member. Expressive leader are less concerned

with the overall goals of the group than with providing emotional support to group

members and attempting to minimize tension and conflict among them. Group members

(20)  expect expressive leaders to maintain stable relationships within the group and provide

support to individual members.

 

Instrumental leaders are likely to have a rather secondary relationship to other group

members. They give orders and may discipline group members who inhibit attainment of

the group’s goals. Expressive leaders cultivate a more personal or primary relationship to

(25)  others in the group. They offer sympathy when someone experiences difficulties or is

subjected to discipline, are quick to lighten a serious moment with humor ,and try to

resolve issues that threaten to divide the group. As the differences in these two roles

suggest, expressive leaders generally receive more personal affection from group members;

instrumental leaders, if they are successful in promoting group goals, may enjoy a mote

distant respect.

 

Reading Comprehension 23

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Question 1
What does the passage mainly discuss?
A
How social groups determine who will lead them
B
How leadership differs in small and large groups
C
The role of leaders in social groups
D
The problems faced by leaders
Question 2
The passage mentions all of the following ways by which people can become leaders EXCEPT
A
formal election process
B
specific leadership training
C
traditional cultural patterns
D
recruitment
Question 3
In mentioning “natural leaders” in lines 8-9, the author is making the point that
A
“natural leaders’ are easily accepted by the members of a social group
B
there is no proof that “natural leaders” exist
C
few people qualify as “natural leaders”
D
“natural leaders” share a similar set of characteristics
Question 4
Which of the following statements about leadership can be inferred from paragraph 2?
A
Most people desire to be leaders but can produce little evidence of their qualifications.
B
Few people succeed in sharing a leadership role with another person.
C
A person who is an effective leader of a particular group may not be an effective leader in another group.
D
A person can best learn how to be an effective leader by studying research on leadership.
Question 5
The passage indicates that instrumental leaders generally focus on
A
sharing responsibility with group members
B
ensuring harmonious relationships
C
achieving a goal
D
identifying new leaders
Question 6
The word “collective” in line 17 is closest in meaning to
A
particular
B
necessary
C
typical
D
group
Question 7
The word “them” in line 19 refers to
A
tension and conflict
B
group members
C
expressive leaders
D
goals of the group
Question 8
A “secondary relationship” mentioned in line 22 between a leader and the members of a group could best be characterized as
A
enthusiastic
B
distant
C
unreliable
D
personal
Question 9
The word “resolve” in line 27 is closest in meaning to
A
talk about
B
avoid thinking about
C
avoid repeating
D
find a solution for
Question 10
Paragraphs 3 and 4 organize the discussion of leadership primarily in term of
A
examples that illustrate a problem
B
cause and effect analysis
C
comparison and contrast
D
narration of events
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