Soal Latihan dan Jawaban Reading Comprehension 21
The end of the nineteenth century and the early years of the twentieth century were
marked by the development of an international Art Nouveau style, characterized by sinuous
lines, floral and vegetable motifs, and soft evanescent coloration. The Art Nouveau style
was an eclectic one, bringing together elements of Japanese art, motifs of ancient cultures,
(5) and natural forms. The glass objects of this style were elegant in outline, although often
deliberately distorted, with pale or iridescent surfaces. A favored device of the style was to
imitate the iridescent surface seen on ancient glass that had been buried. Much of the Art
Nouveau glass produced during the years of its greatest popularity had been generically
termed “art glass.” Art glass was intended for decorative purposes and relied for its effect
(10) on carefully chosen color combinations and innovative techniques.
France produced a number of outstanding exponents of the Art Nouveau style; among
the most celebrated was Emile Galle (1846-1904). In the United States, Louis Comfort
Tiffany (1843-1933) was the most noted exponent of this style, producing a great variety of
glass forms and surfaces, which were widely copied in their time and are highly prized
(15) today. Tiffany was a brilliant designer, successfully combining ancient Egyptian, Japanese,
and Persian motifs.
The Art Nouveau style was a major force in the decorative arts from 1895 until 1915,
although its influence continued throughout the mid-1920’s. It was eventually to be
overtaken by a new school of thought known as Functionalism that had been present since
(20) the turn of the century. At first restricted to a small avant-garde group of architects and
designers, Functionalism emerged as the dominant influence upon designers after the First
World War. The basic tenet of the movement-that function should determine from-was
not a new concept. Soon a distinct aesthetic code evolved: from should be simple, surfaces
plain, and any ornament should be based on geometric relationships. This new design
(25) concept, coupled with the sharp postwar reactions to the styles and conventions of the
preceding decades, created an entirely new public taste which caused Art Nouveau types of
glass to fall out of favor. The new taste demanded dramatic effects of contrast, stark outline
and complex textural surfaces.
Reading Comprehension 21
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Color combinations typical of the Art Nouveau style
Production techniques for art glass
Design elements in the Art Nouveau style
The popularity of the Art Nouveau style
The size of the glass objects
The distortion of the glass
The shapes of the glass objects
The appearance of the glass surface
To compare different Art Nouveau styles
To explain why Art Nouveau glass was so popular in the United States
To give examples of famous Art Nouveau artists
To show the impact Art Nouveau had on other cultures around the world
The purpose of an object should influence its form.
The design of an object is considered more significant than its function.
A useful object should not be attractive.
The form of an object should not include decorative elements.
was easily interpreted by the general public
appealed to people who liked complex painted designs
reflected a common desire to break from the past
clearly distinguished between art and design
Its design concept avoided geometric shapes.
It was a major force in the decorative arts before the First World War.
It was not attractive to architects all designers.
It started on a small scale and then spread gradually.
a textured surface
a flowered design