Soal Latihan dan Jawaban Reading Comprehension 19
The canopy ,the upper level of the trees in the rain forest, holds a plethora of climbing
mammals of moderately large size, which may include monkeys, cats, civets, and
porcupines. Smaller species, including such rodents as mice and small squirrels ,are not
as prevalent overall in high tropical canopies as they are in most habitats globally.
(5) Small mammals, being warm blooded, suffer hardship in the exposed and turbulent
environment of the uppermost trees. Because a small body has more surface area per unit
of weight than a large one of similar shape, it gains or loses heat more swiftly. Thus, in
the trees, where shelter from heat and cold may be scarce and conditions may fluctuate, a
small mammal may have trouble maintaining its body temperature.
(10) Small size makes it easy to scramble among twigs and branches in the canopy for
insects, flowers, or fruit, but small mammals are surpassed, in the competition for food,
by large ones that have their own tactics for browsing among food-rich twigs. The weight
of a gibbon (a small ape) hanging below a branch arches the terminal leaves down so that
fruit-bearing foliage drops toward the gibbon’s face. Walking or leaping species of a
(15) similar or even larger size access the outer twigs either by snapping off and retrieving the
whole branch or by clutching stiff branches with the feet or tail and plucking food with
Small climbing animals may reach twigs readily, but it is harder for them than for large
climbing animals to cross the wide gaps from on tree crown to the next that typify the
(20) high canopy. A macaque or gibbon can hurl itself farther than a mouse can: it can achieve
a running start, and it can more effectively use a branch as a springboard, even bouncing
on a climb several times before jumping. The forward movement of a small animal is
seriously reduced by the air friction against the relatively large surface area of its body.
Finally, for the many small mammals that supplement their insect diet with fruits or seeds
(25) an inability to span open gaps between tree crowns may be problematic, since trees that
yield these foods can be sparse.
Reading Comprehension 19
How does an animal’s body size influence an animal’s need for food?
How is the rain forest different from other habitats?
Why does the rain forest provide an unusual variety of food for animals?
Why do large animals tend to dominate the upper canopy of the rain forest?
high tropical canopies
climbing mammals of moderately large size
They use the trees of the canopy for shelter from heat and cold.
They have difficulty with the changing conditions in the canopy.
They have body shapes that are adapted to life in the canopy.
They prefer the temperature and climate of the canopy to that of other environments.
small animals and large animals are equally adept at obtaining food in the canopy
small animals are often attacked by large animals in the rain forest
small animals require proportionately more food than larger animals do
a large animal’s size is an advantage in obtaining food in the canopy
Air friction against the body surface
The thickness of the branches
The inability to use the front feet as hands
The dense leaves of the tree crown
warm blooded(line 5)