Soal Latihan dan Jawaban Reading Comprehension 16
Europa is the smallest of planet Jupiter’s four largest moons and the second moon
out from Jupiter. Until 1979, it was just another astronomy textbook statistic. Then
came the close-up images obtained by the exploratory spacecraft Voyager 2, and within
days, Europa was transformed-in our perception, at least-into one of the solar system’s
(5) most intriguing worlds. The biggest initial surprise was the almost total lack of detail,
especially from far away. Even at close range, the only visible features are thin, kinked
brown lines resembling cracks in an eggshell. And this analogy is not far off the mark.
The surface of Europa is almost pure water ice, but a nearly complete absence of
craters indicates that Europa’s surface ice resembles Earth’s Antarctic ice cap. The
(10) eggshell analogy may be quite accurate since the ice could be as little as a few kilometers
thick –a true shell around what is likely a subsurface liquid ocean that , in turn, encases
a rocky core. The interior of Europa has been kept warm over the eons by tidal forces
generated by the varying gravitational tugs of the other big moons as they wheel around
Jupiter. The tides on Europa pull and relax in an endless cycle. The resulting internal heat
(15) keeps what would otherwise be ice melted almost to the surface. The cracklike marks on
Europa’s icy face appear to be fractures where water or slush oozes from below.
Soon after Voyager 2’s encounter with Jupiter in 1979, when the best images of
Europa were obtained, researchers advanced the startling idea that Europa’s subsurface
ocean might harbor life. Life processes could have begun when Jupiter was releasing a
(20) vast store of internal heat. Jupiter’s early heat was produced by the compression of the
material forming the giant planet. Just as the Sun is far less radiant today than the primal
Sun, so the internal heat generated by Jupiter is minor compared to its former intensity.
During this warm phase, some 4.6 billion years ago, Europa’s ocean may have been liquid
right to the surface, making it a crucible for life.
Reading Comprehension 16
Discoveries leading to a theory about one of Jupiter’s moons
Techniques used by Voyager 2 to obtain close-up images.
Temperature variations on Jupiter’s moons
The effect of the tides on Europa’s interior
appreciate the extensive and detailed information available by viewing Europa from far away
understand the relationship of Europa to the solar system
recognize the similarity of Europa to Jupiter’s other moons
visualize Europa as scientists saw it in the Voyager 2 images
did not emphasize Europa because little information of interest was available
provided many contradictory statistics about Europa
considered Europa the most important of Jupiter’s moons
did nor mention Europa because it had not yet been discovered
The discussion lacks necessary information.
The comparison is quite appropriate.
The differences are probably significant.
The definition is not precise.
Both may have water beneath a thin, hard surface.
Both have areas encased by a rocky exterior.
Both have an ice can that is melting rapidly.
Both appear to have a surface with many craters.
They prevent tides that could damage Europa’s surface.
They prevent Europa’s subsurface waters from freezing.
They produce the very hard layer of ice that characterizes Europa.
They assure that the gravitational pull on Europa is maintained at a steady level.
Water breaking through from beneath the surface ice
Heat generated by the hot rocky core
The continuous pressure of slush on top of the ice
A long period of extremely high tides