Soal Latihan dan Jawaban Reading Comprehension 12
In the early decades of the United States ,the agrarian movement promoted the farmer
as society’s hero. In the minds of agrarian thinkers and writers ,the farmer was a person on
whose well-being the health of the new country depended .The period between the
Revolution, which ended in 1783,and the Civil War ,which ended in 1865 ,was the age of
(5) the farmer in the United States .Agrarian philosophers ,represented most eloquently by
Thomas Jefferson, celebrated farmers extravagantly for their supposed centrality in a good
society, their political virtue ,and their Superior morality .And virtually all policy makers,
whether they subscribed to the tenets of the philosophy held by Jefferson or not, recognized
agriculture as the key component of the American economy .Consequently ,government at
(10) all levels worked to encourage farmers as a social group and agriculture as economic
Both the national and state governments developed transportation infrastructure,
building canals, roads, bridges, and railroads ,deepening harbors ,and removing
obstructions from navigable streams .The national government imported plant and animal
(15) varieties and launched exploring expeditions into prospective farmlands in the West.
In addition, government trade policies facilitated the exporting of agricultural products.
For their part ,farmers seemed to meet the social expectations agrarian philosophers
had for them ,as their broader horizons and greater self-respect, both products of the
Revolution ,were reflected to some degree in their behavior .Farmers seemed to become
(20) more scientific ,joining agricultural societies and reading the farm newspapers that sprang
up throughout the country .They began using improved implements, tried new crops and
pure animal breeds , and became more receptive to modern theories of soil improvement .
They also responded to inducements by national and state governments .Farmers
streamed to the West ,filling frontier lands with stunning rapidity .But farmers responded
(25) less to the expectations of agrarians and government inducements than to growing market
opportunities .European demand for food from the United States seemed insatiable . War,
industrialization , and urbanization all kept demand high in Europe . United States cities
and industries grew as well; even industries not directly related to farming thrived because
of the market, money ,and labor that agriculture provided
Reading Comprehension 12
The role of the national government in the development of agriculture
Improvements in farming techniques
The agrarian philosophy of Thomas Jefferson
The impact of the increased importance of the farmer
a farmer who guided the agrarian movement toward an emphasis on economic development
an inventor of new farming techniques
a philosopher who believed farmers were essential to the creation of a good society
a leader during the Revolution
The majority of farmers worked for the government.
All government policy makers accepted Jefferson’s views of agriculture and farmers.
Agricultural production declined between 1783 and 1861.
Agriculture was a vital part of the nation’s economy.
give farmers money for their crops
develop policies that helped farmers export their products
import new plant varieties
obtaining information from farm newspapers
becoming more scientific
accumulating personal wealth
planting new crops
Agricultural development contributed to development in other parts of the economy.
The growing settlement of the West led to a decrease in agricultural production.
Farmers were influenced more by government policies than by market opportunities.
European agricultural products were of a higher quality than those produced in the United States.