Soal Latihan dan Jawaban Reading Comprehension 11

Saturday, March 3rd, 2012 - reading comprehension

If food is allowed to stand for some time, it putrefies .When the putrefied material

is examined microscopically ,it is found to be teeming with bacteria. Where do these

bacteria come from , since they are not seen in fresh food? Even until the mid-nineteenth

century, many people believed that such microorganisms originated by spontaneous

(5)  generation ,a hypothetical process by which living organisms develop from nonliving

matter.

 

The most powerful opponent of the theory of spontaneous generation was the French

chemist and microbiologist Louis Pasteur(1822-1895).Pasteur showed that structures

present in air closely resemble the microorganisms seen in putrefying materials .He did

(10)  this by passing air through guncotton filters, the fibers of which stop solid particles. After

the guncotton was dissolved in a mixture of alcohol and ether, the particles that it had

trapped fell to the bottom of the liquid and were examined on a microscope slide .Pasteur

found that in ordinary air these exists a variety of solid structures ranging in size from

0.01 mm to more than 1. 0mm .Many of these bodies resembled the reproductive

(15)  structures of common molds, single-celled animals, and various other microbial cells.

As many as 20 to 30 of them were found in fifteen liters of ordinary air ,and they could

not be distinguished from the organisms found in much larger numbers in putrefying

materials .Pasteur concluded that the organisms found in putrefying materials originated

from the organized bodies present in the air .He postulated that these bodies are constantly

(20)  being deposited on all objects.

 

Pasteur showed that if a nutrient solution was sealed in a glass flask and heated to

boiling to destroy all the living organisms contaminating it, it never putrefied .The

proponents of spontaneous generation declared that fresh air was necessary for

spontaneous generation and that the air inside the sealed flask was affected in some way

(25)  by heating so that it would no longer support spontaneous generation. Pasteur

constructed a swan-necked flask in which putrefying materials could he heated to boiling, but

air could reenter. The bends in the neck prevented microorganisms from getting in the flask.

Material sterilized in such a flask did not putrefy.

 

Reading Comprehension 11

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Your answers are highlighted below.
Question 1
What does the passage mainly discuss?
A
The origin of the theory of spontaneous generation .
B
Pasteur’s influence on the development of the microscope.
C
The effects of pasteurization on food.
D
Pasteur’s argument against the theory of spontaneous generation .
Question 2
The phrase “teeming with ”in line 2 is closest in meaning to
A
hurt by
B
developing into
C
full of
D
resistant to
Question 3
Which of the following questions did the theory of spontaneous generation attempt to answer?
A
How many types of organisms can be found on food?
B
What is the origin of the living organisms are seen on some food?
C
How long can food stand before it putrefies?
D
What is the most effective way to prepare living organisms for microscopic examination?
Question 4
The word “resemble” in line 9 is closest in meaning to
A
benefit from
B
grow from
C
appear similar to
D
join together with
Question 5
The purpose of the “guncotton” mentioned in paragraph 2 was to
A
aid the mixing of alcohol and ether
B
slow the process of putrefaction
C
trap particles for analysis
D
increase the airflow to the microscopic slide
Question 6
The author mention “1.0mm”in line 14 in describing the
A
size of the particles that that were collected
B
thickness of a layer of organisms that was deposited on an object
C
thickness of the microscope slides that were used
D
diameter of the fibers that were in the guncotton filters
Question 7
The word “postulated” in line 19 is closest in meaning to
A
analyzed
B
suggested
C
persuaded
D
doubted
Question 8
The objects that Pasteur removed from the air in his experiment were remarkable because they were
A
primarily single-celled organisms
B
no different from objects found in putrefying materials
C
fairly rare
D
able to live in a mixture of alcohol and ether
Question 9
The word “it” in line 22 refers to
A
a nutrient solution
B
boiling
C
spontaneous generation
D
a glass flask
Question 10
According to paragraph 3,proponents of spontaneous generation believed that which of the following was important for the process to succeed ?
A
Fresh air
B
A sealed container
C
Heat
D
The presence of nutrients
Question 11
It can be inferred from paragraph 3 that Pasteur employed a swam-necked flask to
A
prevent heat from building up in a solution
B
estimate the number of organisms in a liter of air
C
disprove a criticism of his conclusions
D
store sterilized liquids for use in future experiments
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