Soal Latihan dan Jawaban Reading Comprehension 11
If food is allowed to stand for some time, it putrefies .When the putrefied material
is examined microscopically ,it is found to be teeming with bacteria. Where do these
bacteria come from , since they are not seen in fresh food? Even until the mid-nineteenth
century, many people believed that such microorganisms originated by spontaneous
(5) generation ,a hypothetical process by which living organisms develop from nonliving
The most powerful opponent of the theory of spontaneous generation was the French
chemist and microbiologist Louis Pasteur(1822-1895).Pasteur showed that structures
present in air closely resemble the microorganisms seen in putrefying materials .He did
(10) this by passing air through guncotton filters, the fibers of which stop solid particles. After
the guncotton was dissolved in a mixture of alcohol and ether, the particles that it had
trapped fell to the bottom of the liquid and were examined on a microscope slide .Pasteur
found that in ordinary air these exists a variety of solid structures ranging in size from
0.01 mm to more than 1. 0mm .Many of these bodies resembled the reproductive
(15) structures of common molds, single-celled animals, and various other microbial cells.
As many as 20 to 30 of them were found in fifteen liters of ordinary air ,and they could
not be distinguished from the organisms found in much larger numbers in putrefying
materials .Pasteur concluded that the organisms found in putrefying materials originated
from the organized bodies present in the air .He postulated that these bodies are constantly
(20) being deposited on all objects.
Pasteur showed that if a nutrient solution was sealed in a glass flask and heated to
boiling to destroy all the living organisms contaminating it, it never putrefied .The
proponents of spontaneous generation declared that fresh air was necessary for
spontaneous generation and that the air inside the sealed flask was affected in some way
(25) by heating so that it would no longer support spontaneous generation. Pasteur
constructed a swan-necked flask in which putrefying materials could he heated to boiling, but
air could reenter. The bends in the neck prevented microorganisms from getting in the flask.
Material sterilized in such a flask did not putrefy.
Reading Comprehension 11
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The origin of the theory of spontaneous generation .
The effects of pasteurization on food.
Pasteur’s influence on the development of the microscope.
Pasteur’s argument against the theory of spontaneous generation .
What is the most effective way to prepare living organisms for microscopic examination?
What is the origin of the living organisms are seen on some food?
How long can food stand before it putrefies?
How many types of organisms can be found on food?
appear similar to
join together with
slow the process of putrefaction
aid the mixing of alcohol and ether
increase the airflow to the microscopic slide
trap particles for analysis
thickness of a layer of organisms that was deposited on an object
thickness of the microscope slides that were used
diameter of the fibers that were in the guncotton filters
size of the particles that that were collected
primarily single-celled organisms
able to live in a mixture of alcohol and ether
no different from objects found in putrefying materials
a glass flask
a nutrient solution
The presence of nutrients
A sealed container
store sterilized liquids for use in future experiments
disprove a criticism of his conclusions
estimate the number of organisms in a liter of air
prevent heat from building up in a solution