Soal Latihan dan Jawaban Reading Comprehension 03
The first peoples to inhabit what today is the southeastern United States sustained
themselves as hunters and gathers. Sometimes early in the first millennium A.D., however,
they began to cultivate corn and other crops. Gradually, as they became more skilled at
gardening, they settled into permanent villages and developed a rich culture, characterized
(5) by the great earthen mounds they erected as monuments to their gods and as tombs for
their distinguished dead. Most of these early mound builders were part of the
Adena-Hopewell culture, which had its beginnings near the Ohio River and takes its name
from sites in Ohio. The culture spread southward into the present-day states of Louisiana,
Alabama, Georgia, and Florida. Its peoples became great traders, bartering jewellery,
(10) pottery, animal pelts, tools, and other goods along extensive trading networks that
stretched up and down eastern North America and as far west as the Rocky Mountains.
About A.D. 400, the Hopewell culture fell into decay. Over the next centuries, it was
supplanted by another culture, the Mississippian, named after the river along which many
of its earliest villages were located. This complex civilization dominated the Southeast from
(15) about A.D. 700 until shortly before the Europeans began arriving in the sixteenth century.
At the peak of its strength, about the year 1200, it was the most advanced culture in North
America. Like their Hopewell predecessors, the Mississippians became highly skilled at
growing food, although on a grander scale. They developed an improved strain of corn,
which could survive in wet soil and a relatively cool climate, and also learned to cultivate
(20) beans. Indeed, agriculture became so important to the Mississippians that it became
closely associated with the Sun – the guarantor of good crops. Many tribes called
themselves “children of the Sun” and believed their omnipotent priest-chiefs were
descendants of the great sun god.
Although most Mississippians lived in small villages, many others inhabited large towns.
(25) Most of these towns boasted at least one major flat-topped mound on which stood a
temple that contained a sacred flame. Only priests and those charged with guarding the
flame could enter the temples. The mounds also served as ceremonial and trading sites,
and at times they were used as burial grounds.
Reading Comprehension 03
Between A.D. 400 and A.D. 700
About A.D. 400
About A.D. 1200
In the sixteenth century
The Mississippians could only grow plants in warm, dry climates.
The Mississippians sold their food to other groups.
The Mississippians produced more durable and larger crops of food.
The Mississippians produced special foods for their religious leaders.
The early locations of the Adena-Hopewell culture
Two important trade routes in eastern North America
Two former leaders who were honored with large burial mounds.
The two most important nations of the Adena-Hopewell culture
Conflicts with other Native American groups over land
A migration of these peoples to the Rocky Mountains
The development of trade in North America
The establishment of permanent settlements
To provide an example of their religious rituals.
To explain why they were obedient to their priest-chiefs.
To argue about the importance of religion in their culture.
To illustrate the great importance they placed on agriculture.
The construction of burial mounds
The development of agriculture
The locations of towns and villages
The early people and cultures of the United States
sites for commerce
meeting places for the entire community