Soal Latihan dan Jawaban Reading Comprehension 02
Printmaking is the generic term for a number of processes, of which woodcut and
engraving are two prime examples. Prints are made by pressing a sheet of paper (or other
material) against an image-bearing surface to which ink has been applied. When the paper
is removed, the image adheres to it, but in reverse.
(5) The woodcut had been used in China from the fifth century A.D. for applying patterns to
textiles. The process was not introduced into Europe until the fourteenth century, first for
textile decoration and then for printing on paper. Woodcuts are created by a relief process;
first, the artist takes a block of wood, which has been sawed parallel to the grain, covers it
with a white ground, and then draws the image in ink. The background is carved away,
(10) leaving the design area slightly raised. The woodblock is inked, and the ink adheres to the
raised image. It is then transferred to damp paper either by hand or with a printing press.
Engraving, which grew out of the goldsmith’s art, originated in Germany and northern Italy
in the middle of the fifteenth century. It is an intaglio process (from Italian intagliare, “to
carve”). The image is incised into a highly polished metal plate, usually copper, with a
(15) cutting instrument, or burin. The artist inks the plate and wipes it clean so that some ink
remains in the incised grooves. An impression is made on damp paper in a printing press,
with sufficient pressure being applied so that the paper picks up the ink.
Both woodcut and engraving have distinctive characteristics. Engraving lends itself to
subtle modeling and shading through the use of fine lines. Hatching and cross-hatching
(20) determine the degree of light and shade in a print. Woodcuts tend to be more linear, with
sharper contrasts between light and dark. Printmaking is well suited to the production of
multiple images. A set of multiples is called an edition. Both methods can yield several
hundred good-quality prints before the original block or plate begins to show signs of wear.
Mass production of prints in the sixteenth century made images available, at a lower cost,
(25) to a much broader public than before.
Reading Comprehension 02
Two types of printmaking
The characteristics of good-quality prints
The origins of textile decoration
Types of paper used in printmaking
the woodcuts found in China in the fifth century
the process involved in creating a woodcut
the use of woodcuts in the textile industry
the introduction of woodcuts to Europe
"grain" (line 8)
"grooves" (line 16)
"burin" (line 15)
"patterns" (line 5)
developed from the art of the goldsmiths
originated in the fifteenth century
requires that the paper be cut with a burin
involves carving into a metal plate
They achieve contrast through hatching and cross-hatching.
They were first used in Europe.
Their designs are slightly raised.
They allow multiple copies to be produced from one original.
Prints could be made at low cost.
Decreased demand for prints kept prices affordable.
Many people became involved in the printmaking industry.
The quality of paper and ink had improved.
require a printing press
are created from a reversed image
can be reproduced on materials other than paper
show variations between light and dark shades