Phrase Bahasa Inggris

Tuesday, June 26th, 2012 - grammar, PHRASE

Pengertian Phrase

Phrase adalah rangkaian kata yang sudah mengandung suatu pengertian atau satu kesatuan makna, tetapi tidak mempunyai subject dan predicate dan merupakan bagian dari suatu kalimat. Apabila kata-kata dalam phrase tersebut kita pisah, maka mempunyai makna yang berbeda apabila kata-kata tersebut disatukan.

Contoh:

  • The girl at the door is my sister.
  • The book on the table is mine.
  • The man with the red hat is my teacher.
  • The boys in the street are students.

Berdasarkan penggunaannya Phrase dapat diklasifikasikan menjadi 3 macam, yaitu:

  1. Noun Phrase.

  2. Adjective Phrase.

  3. Adverbial Phrase.

1. Noun Phrase

Adalah phrase yang digunakan/berfungsi sebagai noun (kata benda).

Contoh:

  • Ali went to the store for some books.
  • My new car near the tree is old enough.
  • The desk in this room is small.

2. Adjective Phrase

Adalah phrase yang digunakan/berfungsi sebagai adjective, memberi sifat kepada noun atau pronoun.

Contoh:

  • Books in black and red were the clerk’s delight.
  • The girl with long hair is my friend.

3. Adverbial Phrase

Adalah phrase yang digunakan/berfungsi sebagai adverb, yakni menerangkan kata kerja.

Contoh:

  • He shouted on house top.
  • Henry fishes in the big lake.
  • He put the money into his pocket.

Adverbial Phrase dapat juga digunakan untuk menyatakan (mengekspresikan) beberapa hubungan; seperti mengekspresikan hubungan waktu (expressing a relation of time), place (tempat), manner (cara), degree (tingkat/derajat), cause (sebab akibat), purpose (tujuan/maksud), condition (syarat), atau concession or contrast (pertentangan).

Perhatikan contoh-contoh kalimat berikut ini:

1. Menunjukkan Hubungan Waktu.

  • She has been ill since two days ago,
  • We have been studying English for three years.

2. Menunjukkan Hubungan Tempat.

  • I live near the school.
  • He hurried into the classroom.
  • The children’s toys were all over the room.

3. Menunjukkan Hubungan Cara.

  • He cut it with a knife.
  • She writes an angry letter in red ink.

4. Menunjukkan Hubungan Tingkat.

  • I love her very much.
  • You must study English more diligently.

5. Menunjukkan Hubungan Sebab Akibat.

  • She was injured because of the bus accident.
  • I was late because of the rain.
  • Your father is very angry with you for staying out so late.

6. Menunjukkan Hubungan Tujuan.

  • She has come to tell you the latest news.
  • I leave for Jakarta to buy some books.

7. Menunjukkan Hubungan Pertentangan.

  • In spite of the rain he went out.
  • Regardless of the weather she always brings an umbrella.

8. Menunjukkan Hubungan Syarat.

  • We’ll go if necessary.

Berdasarkan kata-kata pendahuluannya (introductory words or pivot word) phrase dapat diklasifikasikan menjadi 4 macam, yaitu:

  1. Prepositional Phrase.
  2. Principal Phrase.
  3. Infinitive Phrase.
  4. Gerund Phrase.

1. Prepositional Phrase

Adalah ungkapan yang mengandung prepos’isi (kata depan); dan biasanya dapat dipakai/berfungsi sebagai Noun, Adjective atau. Adverb. Contoh:

  • The report will be sent in a few days.
  • He is sometimes angry with his wife.
  • I’m sorry for having come late.
  • The traffic sign points to the left.

2. Principial Phrase

Adalah ungkapan yang mengandung participle yang biasanya berfungsi sebagai adjective.

  • Not knowing anyone in town he felt very lonesome.
  • Having finished his assignment, he went home.
  • Having lost all my money, I went home.
  • Student arriving late will not be permitted to enter the lecture hall. (Arriving late menjelaskan student.)
  • We heard the children crying.

Arti atau pengertian dari kalimat yang mengandung Participial Phrase dapat menunjukkan:

1. Waktu

a. After (sesudah)

  • Having finished all the work, she went home. (Setelah dia  menyelesaikan semua pekerjaan, dia pulang.)

b. While or When ( = ketika)

  • Walking along the street, I met a friend whom I had not seen for along time. (Ketika saya berjalan sepanjang jalan, saya bertemu teman yang telah lama saya tidak berjumpa.)

2. Sebab Akibat

  • Having worked hard all his life, he decided to take a long vacation. (Karena dia telah bekerja keras sepanjang hidupnya, maka dia memutuskan untuk mengambil liburan panjang)

Tetapi kadang-kadang dapat juga menunjukkan pengertian waktu dan sebab bersama-sama.

  • Having eaten too much, he became sleepy. (Karena dia makan terlalu banyak, dia jadi mengantuk)

Perhatikan beberapa contoh berikut:

  • Needing some money to buy a book, Ali cashed a check. (= Because he needed some money to buy a book, Ali chased a check.)Being unable to afford a car, she bought a bicycle. Unable to afford a car, she bought a bicycle. (= Because she was unable to afford a car, she bought a bicycle.)

3. Infinitive Phrase

Adalah ungkapan yang mengandung infinitive dan infinitive phrase dapat digunakan/berfungsi sebagai Noun, Adjective atau Adverb.

a. Infinitive phrase sebagai Noun

  • To read books means to enlarge one’s horizons.
  • To see his children again will make him happy.
  • To learn English, you must practice everyday.
  • To ask more money would be wrong.
  • To do that is difficult for me.

b. Infinitive phrase sebagai Adjective

  • He wanted books to juggle acrobatically.
  • The poison was strong enough to have killed ten people.
  • He is a good man for you to know.

c. Infinitive phrase sebagai Adverb

  • He read to enlarge his horizons.
  • He has been warned not to do that again.
  • I had hoped to see her soon.

4. Gerund Phrase

Adalah ungkapan yang mengandung gerund, dan biasanya hanya berfungsi sebagai Noun.

  • Reading books enlarge one’s horizons.
  • Playing with guns is dangerous.
  • Taking a long walk every day is good exercise.
  • Her cleaning the house every day is not necessary.
  • The broadcasting by that station comes from the top of a skyscraper.

Appositive Phrase

Sebagai pelengkap pembahasan tentang Phrases, berikut ini diuraikan jenis phrases lain yaitu: Appositive Phrases, yang sangat besar peranannya dalam penyusunan kalimat dalam bahasa Inggris.

Appositive Phrases yaitu sekelompok kata yang berfungsi memberi keterangan tambahan kepada subjek atau objek.

Appositive Phrases dapat berupa noun, adjective, adverb, atau prepositional phrases.

  • Noun: He had asked Mr. Wilson, a prominent lawyer, to represent him in court.
  • Adjective: The professor, unaware that many of his students were asleep, went right on lecturing.
  • Adverb: The gentleman over there by the door is our accountant.
  • Prepositional phrase: Mr. Harris, in a hurry to get home, a took a taxi from the airport.

Susunan Kalimat dengan Appositive Phrases

1. Perubahan Adjective Clause menjadi Appositive Phrase

Adjective clauses yang mengandung bentuk Be dapat disingkat menjadi Appositive Phrase dengan hanya mempertahankan pelengkap (complement) sesudah Be (noun, adjective, adverb atau preposition at phrases).

  • The young man, who is now a lawyer in a large firm, has lost much of his old ambition. Menjadi: The young man, now a lawyer in a large firm, has lost mush of his old ambition.
  • The person who is responsible for the damage will have to pay for it. Menjadi: The person responsible for the damage will have to pay for it.

2. Letak Appositive Phrase dalam Kalimat

Letak Appositive Phrase yang paling umum adalah sesudah noun yang diterangkan olehnya, dan terletak di antara dua tanda koma.

  • His uncle, a proud and unbending man, refused all help that was offered him.
  • Ahmad, eager to get ahead in his career, worked hard day and night.
  • The man, aware that he had mad a mistake, tried to correct it.
  • The high-powered computer machine, the most powerful of its type, was finally readied for use.

Namun Appositive Phrase yang mengacu (menerangkan) subjek dari main verb dapat pula diletakkan di awal kalimat atau di akhir kalimat.

Di Awal Kalimat

  • A proud and unbending man, his uncle refused all help that was offered him.
  • Eager to get ahead in his career, Charles worked hard day and night. (Pada posisi seperti ini, appositive phrase sering mengekspresikan sebab akibat, kadang-kadang kelonggaran.)

Di Akhir Kalimat

  •  His uncle refused all help that was offered him, a proud and unbending man.
  • Charles worked hard day and night, eager to get ahead in his career.