MATERI DAN CONTOH SOAL UN TENSES

Monday, April 23rd, 2012 - Soal Bahasa Inggris

Oke kali ini kita akan membahas sedikit tentang tenses. Tenses mempunyai ciri yaitu bentuk kata kerja Bahasa Inggris yang perubahannya berkaitan dengan ‘waktu’.

Misal: Verb 1 (infinitive), Verb 2, dan Verb 3.
Contoh penggunaan ‘tenses’:
1. Saya belajar di SMP (saat ini) = I study at SMP
2. Saya belajar di SD tiga tahun yang lalu = I studied at SD three years ago
3. Saya akan belajar di SMA tahun depan = I will study at SMA next year

 

JENIS-JENIS TENSES
Ada 16 bentuk tenses. Banyak? ga usah khawatir. Untuk tingkat SMP, jenis tenses dasar yang harus dikuasi adalah:
A. Simple Present
B. Simple Past
C. Present Continuos
D. Present Perfect
E. Present Future

 

  • SIMPLE PRESENT TENSE (waktu kini / saat ini)

Digunakan untuk menjelaskan sesuatu yang bersifat umum dan kebiasaan.
Pola:

1. S + V1 (s/es) I like English, she likes English, they like English
2. S + to be + Complement. I am fine, she is diligent, they are here.
Complement: Non-Verb, bukan kata kerja (Contoh: Adjective, Noun and Adverb).
Keterangan Waktu dan Frekwensi:
Every, usually, always, often, sometimes, seldom, ever, never.
Catatan:
Untuk pola 1 = Ada penambahan s/es pada V1 jika Subj he, she, it
Untuk kal. Negative dan Tanya, kata kerja Bantu-nya (Aux.Verb): do / does
( I, you, we, they = do ) ( He, she, it = does )
Untuk pola 2 = to be (am, is, are) tergantung subject.
( I = am ) ( He, she, it = is ) ( You, we, they = are )

Contoh kalimat:
1. (+) She plays badminton every Sunday
(-) She does not play badminton every Sunday
(?) Does she play badminton every Sunday?
2. (+) He is smart.
(-) He is not smart
(?) Is he smart?

 

  •  SIMPLE PAST TENSE (waktu lampau)

Digunakan untuk menyatakan kegiatan di masa lampau/lalu.
Pola:

1. S + V2 I studied English yesterday
2. S + to be + Complement She was sick last night, they were here yesterday

Complement: Non-Verb, bukan kata kerja (Contoh: Adjective, Noun and Adverb).

Keterangan Waktu:
Yesterday, last —, — ago, in 1997, etc.

Catatan:
Pola 1. Pembentukan V2 :
Untuk regular verb (teratur) >> tambahkan d/ed
Untuk irregular verb (tdk teratur) >> lihat kamus (daftar Verb)
Untuk kal. Negative dan Tanya, kata kerja bantu-nya (Aux. Verb) adalah: did

Pola 2. To be (was, were) tergantung Subject
>> I, he, she, it = was. >> You, we, they, jamak = were

Contoh kalimat:
(+) She played badminton yesterday
(-) She did not play badminton yesterday
(?) Did she play badminton yesterday?

(+) He was here last night
(-) He was not here last night
(?) Was he here last night?

 

  • PRESENT CONTINUOUS TENSE (waktu sedang-sekarang)

Digunakan untuk menyatakan kegiatan yang sedang terjadi (sekarang)
Pola: S + to be + V-ing to be present: (is, am, are)

Keterangan Waktu:
Now, at present, at this moment

Contoh kalimat:
(+) He is studying English now.
(-) He is not studying English now
(?) Is he studying English now?

 

  • PRESENT PERFECT TENSE (telah / sudah)

Digunakan untuk menyatakan kegiatan yang telah atau sudah selesai dilakukan.
Pola:

1. S + have/has + V3 I have worked for 1 hour
2. S + have/has + been + Complement I have been here for 1 hour

Complement: Non-Verb, bukan kata kerja (Contoh: Adjective, Noun and Adverb).
Penggunaan ‘have’ atau ‘has’ tergantung pada Subject.
I, you, we, they, jamak = have
He, she, it = has

Keterangan Waktu:
since (sejak), for (selama), already/just now (baru saja)

(+) She has worked at the bank for 4 years.

(-) She has not worked at the bank for 4 years

(?) Has she worked at the bank for 4 years?

Catatan:
Jika negative (has not / have not) : belum
Jika ditambah ‘ever’ : sudah pernah
Jika ditambah ‘never’ : belum pernah

I have ever met him (saya sudah pernah bertemu dia)
I have not met him (saya belum bertemu dia)
I have never met him (saya belum pernah bertemu dia)

 

  • PRESENT FUTURE TENSE (akan, di masa mendatang)

Digunakan untuk menyatakan kegiatan yang akan dilakukan di masa mendatang.
Pola:

1. S + will + V1/inf 1. I will work tomorrow
2. S + will + be + Complement 2. I will be here tomorrow
Complement: Non-Verb, bukan kata kerja (Contoh: Adjective, Noun and Adverb).
Pola Lain: kata ‘will’, diganti dengan to be + going to
to be (is,am,are) sesuaikan dengan Subject-nya
Contoh: I will work tomorrow / I am going to work tomorrow
She will work tomorrow / She is going to work tomorrow

Keterangan Waktu, misalnya: tomorrow, next time, next week, tonight, coming holiday
Contoh kalimat:
(+) she will write the letter tonight.
(-) She will not write the letter tonight.
(?) Will she write the letter tonight?
Dalam kalimat pengandaian, present future berpasangan dengan simple present.
Contoh: I will come if he invites me.

 

CONTOH SOAL UJIAN NASIONAL ( ‘TENSES’ )
1. Dian Basuki is a piano player. He plays the piano very well. He ______ many competitions in
Indonesia since he was a primary school student. (UN 2006/P1)
A. wins
B. has won
C. will won
D. won

PEMBAHASAN: Untuk melengkapi kalimat terakhir dari soal di atas, perhatikan keterangan waktu
‘since’ (sejak). Berarti kalimat tersebut ber-tenses ‘Present Perfect’ (telah/sudah). Pola
‘Present Perfect’: Subj + have/has + V3. Maka pilihan yang tepat adalah ‘has won’ (telah
memenangkan)
JAWAB: B

2. Teacher : Who’s absent today, children?
Jihan : Umar, Sir. He’s sick. His mother ______ him to the clinic yesterday.
Teacher : I see. (UN 2005/P1)
A. will take
B. has taken
C. takes
D. took

PEMBAHASAN: Kalimat Jihan yang kedua, ada keterangan waktu yesterday. Berarti Kalimat
Simple Past, menggunakan Verb 2. Pilihan yang menunjukkan Verb 2 adalah ‘took’.
JAWAB: D

3. Syfa : Tell me about your plan for the coming holiday.
Anggi : I ______ my holiday in China.
Syfa : It sounds interesting. (UN 2003/P2)
A. have spent
B. am going to spend
C. spend
D. spent

PEMBAHASAN: Syfa menanyakan apa rencana (plan) Anggi untuk liburan mendatang (coming
holiday). Berarti jawaban yang dibutuhkan adalah kalimat ‘present future’ (yang akan datang).
Kata-kata yang sama artinya dengan ‘will’ adalah ‘to be + going to’ (akan): am going to spend
(akan menghabiskan).
JAWAB: B

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